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Musk says no Twitter deal without clarity on spam accounts

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Seen by his critics as an erratic megalomaniac, Elon Musk surprised many investors in April with news that he wanted to purchase Twitter
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Billionaire Elon Musk said Tuesday that his purchase of Twitter would not go ahead unless he was given assurances on the bots that he says plague the platform, further complicating his acrimonious bid for the social media giant.

The chief of SpaceX as well as Tesla, Musk is currently listed by Forbes as the world’s wealthiest person, with a fortune of about $230 billion, much of it in Tesla stock.

Seen by his champions as an iconoclastic genius and by his critics as an erratic megalomaniac, Musk surprised many investors in April with news that he wanted to purchase Twitter.

But his $44 billion bid for Twitter is now “temporarily on hold,” pending questions over the social media company’s estimates of the number of fake accounts, or “bots.”

“Yesterday, Twitter’s CEO publicly refused to show proof of <5%,” tweeted Musk, who has almost 94 million followers on the social network. 

“This deal cannot move forward until he does.”

Twitter chief executive Parag Agrawal has said the platform suspends more than a half-million seemingly bogus accounts daily, usually before they are even seen, and locks millions more weekly that fail checks to make sure they are controlled by humans and not by software.

Internal measures show that fewer than five percent of accounts active on any given day at Twitter are spam, but that analysis can’t be replicated externally due to the need to keep user data private, Agrawal contended.

Musk, who has said bots plague Twitter and that he would make getting rid of them a priority if he owned the platform, responded to that tweet by Agrawal with a poo emoji.

“So how do advertisers know what they’re getting for their money?” Musk tweeted in a subsequent response about the need to prove Twitter users are real people.

“This is fundamental to the financial health of Twitter.”

The process used to estimate how many accounts are bots has been shared with Musk, Agrawal insisted.

“It appears the spam/bot issue is cascading and clearly making the Twitter deal a confusing one,” Wedbush analyst Dan Ives said in a note to investors.

“The bot issue at the end of the day was known by the New York City cab driver and feels more to us like the ‘dog ate the homework’ excuse to bail on the Twitter deal or talk down a lower price.”

Musk has described his motivation as stemming from a desire to ensure freedom of speech on the platform and to boost monetization of a website that is massively influential but has struggled to attain profitable growth.

He has also said he favored lifting the ban on Donald Trump, who was kicked off the platform in January 2021 shortly after the former US president’s efforts to overturn his election defeat led to the January 6 assault on the US Capitol.

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Will retailers ever be able to deliver true omnichannel experiences?

Omnichannel is the white whale of the retail sector. But as the vision for omnichannel enters its third decade, the question remains whether new technologies and a relentless retailer focus on personalization will finally bring it to life.

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Depending on who you talk to, it’s either the 20th anniversary, the 13th anniversary, or the 12th anniversary of the term ‘omnichannel.’ 

Omnichannel involves a seamless, personalized customer experience across all channels a consumer might touch. The concept has been, for years now, the point on the horizon that retailers have been moving towards.

But it’s still not clear if they’ll ever be able to deliver on its promise. Why is that?

Over the last two decades, we’ve seen the launch of seemingly endless social channels and digital brand experiences. Consumer behaviour and preferences have shifted along with them. In 2023, brands have far more on-and-offline consumer touchpoints to account for than at any time in history. And the complexity is only going to increase in the future.

Creating a personalized, seamless shopping experience in these conditions is much more difficult than it seems.

According to McKinsey, about 75% of consumers research and buy items in both physical stores and digital channels. 

With that in mind, let’s look at the prospective sale of a television.

When a potential customer walks into a brick-and-mortar electronics store in a shopping mall, the salesperson they speak to needs to be up to speed on the customer’s shopping journey and history with the company, which might include dozens, if not hundreds, of data points across multiple departments and digital sites. That customer may have investigated their television purchase options on the company’s website, put one or two in their virtual cart, talked to a sales rep over chat, investigated the products further on third party sites, and on and on. 

Suffice it to say, there are a lot of touchpoints. But it goes beyond that. 

Imagine another customer at the mall that day. Let’s say they’re sitting in the food court, probably eating a slice from Sbarro. And they decide today is the day to buy that new TV. But rather than go to the physical store, they pull out their phone and start asking questions with the company’s online representative. Maybe they narrow it down to two models of TV they’re curious about.

If that same customer then goes to the physical location in the mall, the in-store salesperson they talk to should — in theory — be able to continue the conversation with the chat representative seamlessly. They should know the two models the customer is interested in, rather than starting the sales process all over again. 

It’s a huge technical and collaborative challenge for retailers to make those conversations seamless.

It’s also expensive.

With such an enormous amount of consumer data being created each day,  the capital, human resources, and process investments brands required to deliver a personalized customer experience are significant.

According to Incisiv’s 2023 Omnichannel Customer Service Index (via Retail Customer Experience) 91% of customer agents offer in-depth knowledge of products, but only 34% provide a personalized experience.

Some industry leaders even question the value of omnichannel altogether. In an infamous 2019 piece from Forbes, Steve Dennis wrote that:

“I think most of us can agree that if “omni-channel” ever had any real usefulness (debatable), as a concept it is now well past its expiration date… Simply stated, a great customer experience has never been about being everywhere and being all things for all people. What matters is showing up for the right customers, where it really matters, in remarkable ways.”

Dennis calls his vision for customer experience excellence ‘harmonized retail.’ As he explains, this approach is similar to a multi-channel customer experience, where brands strive to deliver great customer experiences across mobile, brick-and-mortar, and all other touchpoints, but not necessarily in the seamless, personalized way that omnichannel has always promised.

So, with all that in mind – is the omnichannel dream dead?

Not even close. 

So… long live omnichannel?

Executives remain obsessed with omnichannel delivery — according to Deloitte, 96% of retail executives think customers want seamless, personalized shopping experiences.

There are some indications that a somewhat shifted vision for omnichannel may yet come to pass in the years to come. This revised version effectively says that the customer is the channel.

From management consultants Bain & Company:

“The customer will increasingly shape decisions, not the channel. That’s a key light-bulb moment for tomorrow’s retailers. Knowing how consumers behave in your store or on your website won’t be enough. Retailers will instead need a holistic understanding of how people live, work, shop, and amuse themselves, partly gained through integrating external data from social media and other sources.”

That actually seems even more ambitious than the original vision for omnichannel. Now retailers need to know about a customer’s entire life, not just their digital and shopping data. How is that even going to be possible?

The answer may lie with Web3 technologies. More from Bain:

“Retailers will have to push the boundaries of what’s possible to stand out. That means coming to grips with web3 digital innovations and applications such as blockchains and the metaverse. These promise huge advances, such as full digitalization and transparency of interactions across channels, as well as the seamless integration of payments.”

You could argue that the hype about blockchain technology is overheated. It has been regularly touted as disruptive to almost every industry under the sun, but we still haven’t seen much evidence of it changing the way we live – or shop. 

Why? From JP Morgan:

“While the buzz continues to grow, limitations still exist to the widespread adoption, including technical hurdles such as scalability, data privacy, and technological standardization. Moreover, blockchain requires a need for market-wide understanding of technology application against the current existing regulatory framework. Additionally, there are technical challenges related to security. To date, security breaches have related to user and human error, rather than the core technology, but these vulnerabilities need to be addressed.”

Still, the notion of transparency and integration of data across channels could actually be transformative for retailers trying to deliver omnichannel experiences. This might be the key to unlocking real-time personalization.

Maybe not in 2023. But sometime in the future.

What’s next for omnichannel?

So, what should omnichannel aficionados watch for as 2023 unfolds? What signs or trends might indicate that seamless, personalized point on the horizon is finally growing closer?

Here are just a few foundational pieces that still haven’t fully come together:

Where does that leave us?

The most important takeaway here might be that there is never going to be a moment when omnichannel ‘happens.’ Omnichannel will always be in the process of happening.

This means you should get strapped in for ongoing debates about what omnichannel means and how best to deliver it. And very different consumer experiences depending on which retailer you’re shopping at. 

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Bang for the buck: How USD exchange rates have changed for 10 major travel destinations

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If you're itching to get back to international travel, consider how the U.S. dollar compares with local currencies, thanks to data from TravelPerk.
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Ready to see the world? If you’re one of the thousands bitten by the travel bug, you know that the industry has picked up in a big way since many countries have lifted COVID-19 restrictions. TSA checkpoint data showed that the number of travelers in U.S. airports throughout 2022 was more than 30% higher than in 2021.

International travel has come back with a bang after borders have reopened and quarantine restrictions have lessened. But before you pack your bags and get your passport stamped, you should know all the basics of the country you are visiting—including the language, currency, and the exchange rate of the U.S. dollar.

TravelPerk compared how the U.S. dollar has strengthened or weakened against the local currencies of 10 top travel destinations using data from Google Finance. Exchange rates were compared between Dec. 28, 2021, and Dec. 28, 2022. Locations for this list were chosen after analyzing U.S. National Travel and Tourism Office data on the most popular countries visited by American travelers.

Luckily for budget-minded travelers, the U.S. dollar has strengthened against the currency of many popular travel destinations on this list. However, the dollar has weakened compared to several warm-weather destinations in neighboring Central America and the Caribbean.

By arming yourself with information about the exchange rate, you can better budget for the food, drink, and entertainment you’ll no doubt buy in your destination. In some countries, your savings might stretch further than you’d expect, while others might require that you budget for more than you initially expected.

Two people exchanging dollars for euros.

Ton Anurak // Shutterstock

Eurozone

– USD value, December 2021: 0.88 euros
– USD value, December 2022: 0.94
– Year-over-year change: 6.8%

Twenty countries in the eurozone accept the euro, making it a particularly versatile currency for travelers. Whether you want to eat waffles in Belgium, sip champagne at the top of the Eiffel Tower in France, or tour cathedrals in Italy, having plenty of euros in your pocket is crucial to a European vacation.

The value of the euro compared to the U.S. dollar has seen some volatility over the last 10 years, but this has largely worked in Americans’ favor. Where you used to need about $1.50 to equal 1 euro, the rate between the two currencies is now much closer to a 1-1 ratio.

Dollars and Mexican Pesos assorted bills cash pile.

AGCuesta // Shutterstock

Mexico

– USD value, December 2021: 20.66 Mexican pesos
– USD value, December 2022: 19.44
– Year-over-year change: -5.9%

When you think of traveling to Mexico, your first thought might be of all-inclusive resorts on pristine beaches. But the country has so much more to offer to travelers. History buffs can marvel at the pyramids of Chichén Itzá; foodies can try different street tacos from vendors in Mexico City; and beach enthusiasts can soak up the sun on some of the most beautiful beaches in the world.

Mexico is a pretty affordable trip for U.S. visitors, thanks to its proximity and the value of the Mexican peso against the dollar. While you might get fewer pesos for your dollar than last year, you can still expect your money to stretch a long way.

Young man smiling counting Canadian dollars in a city.

Krakenimages.com // Shutterstock

Canada

– USD value, December 2021: 1.28 Canadian dollars
– USD value, December 2022: 1.36
– Year-over-year change: 6.3%

The Great White North also uses a dollar for its currency, the value of which has changed in U.S. travelers’ favor recently. This will come as welcome news to outdoor enthusiasts ready to soak up the stunning Canadian landscapes.

More than cold weather and donuts, this massive country is home to stunning mountains and waterfalls, ski resorts, museums, and more. Walk the 400-year-old cobbled streets of Old Québec, go on a culinary tour in foodie cities like Toronto and Vancouver, or check out the other side of the famous Niagara Falls.

Pound coin sitting on a dollar bill.

pitchr // Shutterstock

United Kingdom

– USD value, December 2021: 0.74 British pounds
– USD value, December 2022: 0.83
– Year-over-year change: 12.2%

When the United Kingdom left the European Union, the value of the British pound fell significantly. While not without ramifications to the international finance world, the upside is that U.S. travelers can stretch their dollars further than before.

The U.K. has no shortage of tourist attractions to entice travelers, such as museums packed with global history in London and castles in the countryside. England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland each offer unique histories and landscapes.

Cashier counting Dominican Republic 500 peso bank notes.

Cloudy Design // Shutterstock

Dominican Republic

– USD value, December 2021: 57.05 Dominican pesos
– USD value, December 2022: 56.05
– Year-over-year change: -1.8%

If you’re looking for a trip that will get you a lot of bang for your buck, look no further than the Dominican Republic. One American dollar can get you quite a few Dominican pesos, despite the exchange rate falling slightly in the last year.

This island nation is an ideal destination for adventure seekers and beach bums alike. Those who prefer a little adrenaline can go rafting or paragliding in Jarabacoa, while those who want to lay out on the beach next to crystal blue water can check out resorts in Punta Cana. The Dominican Republic is just a short flight away from the U.S. and boasts cheap eats and a favorable exchange rate.

Woman buying a drink at a corner shop in Jamaica.

byvalet // Shutterstock

Jamaica

– USD value, December 2021: 153.52 Jamaican dollars
– USD value, December 2022: 153.07
– Year-over-year change: -0.3%

Jamaica is another great island destination for travelers trying to stretch their dollars as far as possible. While the American dollar has weakened in many warm-weather destinations in the last year, it has remained fairly stable when compared to the Jamaican dollar.

Like other Caribbean islands, Jamaica is a veritable paradise for travelers seeking lush rainforests, stunning beaches, or mountain hiking. You can zipline through the forest, climb the Blue Mountains, or sip a fruity beverage on the beach at an all-inclusive resort. Don’t forget, the food in Jamaica is also renowned, whether you prefer curry or fresh seafood.

Person handing Chinese yuan across a counter.

Ton Anurak // Shutterstock

China

– USD value, December 2021: 6.37 Chinese yuan
– USD value, December 2022: 6.98
– Year-over-year change: 9.6%

China can be challenging for Americans to get to, requiring a special visa for entry and several connecting flights. Still, it is a bucket list destination for many for a reason. The country’s rich culture, delicious food, stunning vistas, and fascinating history make it an excellent destination for travelers.

From the Great Wall to the Forbidden City in Beijing or the Terracotta Army in Xian, there is no shortage of famous attractions to soak in as you travel across this large country. Plus, your dollar can get you quite a few Chinese yuan, and the exchange rate has strengthened in the last year.

Closeup of customer paying with Japan yen banknote for food in the market.

Atiwat Witthayanurut // Shutterstock

Japan

– USD value, December 2021: 114.77 Japanese yen
– USD value, December 2022: 134.39
– Year-over-year change: 17.1%

Compared to the Japanese yen, the U.S. dollar has steadily strengthened over the last few years, meaning now is a better time than ever to visit this island nation.

Take the bullet train to Tokyo to see the tower, museums, temples, and a bustling urban scene. WWII buffs can check out the memorials in Hiroshima, while foodies can fill up on sushi, ramen, and curry. Japan also boasts some of the most acclaimed theme parks in the world, some of the most beautiful beaches, and rich culture—there is something for everyone on a trip to this country.

Hand takes out India Banknotes from wallet.

Andrzej Rostek // Shutterstock

India

– USD value, December 2021: 74.71 Indian rupees
– USD value, December 2022: 82.85
– Year-over-year change: 10.9%

Like China, India requires U.S. travelers to apply for a special visa to enter the country. But it is worth it for many travelers, as the diverse country has a ton to offer in terms of tourism. Not only can you get plenty of Indian rupees for your dollar, but you can use them for some of the best food in the world, or to visit famous attractions like the Taj Mahal in Agra.

Urban travelers will love the bustling streets of Mumbai, while those who prefer the countryside can check out the many beautiful temples and shrines.

Costa Rica cash withdrawn from an ATM.

Andrzej Rostek // Shutterstock

Costa Rica

– USD value, December 2021: 649.96 Costa Rican colóns
– USD value, December 2022: 581.19
– Year-over-year change: -10.6%

Like the other warm-weather destinations on our list, the U.S. dollar has weakened compared to Costa Rican colóns. And still, your dollars will take you a long way in this affordable travel destination.

The landscape of Costa Rica is known as some of the most beautiful in the world, featuring lush rainforests, volcanos, beaches, and diverse wildlife. It is an ideal destination for divers, hikers, and other adventure seekers. Animal lovers can visit the country’s many rescue centers to meet the local wildlife, from jaguars and monkeys on land to turtles and rays under the sea.

This story originally appeared on TravelPerk and was produced and
distributed in partnership with Stacker Studio.

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Highest-paying jobs that don’t require a degree

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College isn't for everyone, so Stacker used Bureau of Labor Statistics data to find the 50 highest-paying jobs that don't require a college degree.
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College isn’t for everyone, but many people—especially in recent generations—feel pressured to get a degree to achieve success. One recent survey found that at least 4 in 5 high school students (86%) felt this pressure from friends and family, with nearly 3 in 4 (73%) saying their post-high school decisions are determined by a career path.

It is true that lifetime earnings for those with a bachelor’s degree are typically higher than for those with just a high school diploma. But people who don’t graduate college can make a good living. A little over half of workers nationwide don’t have a college degree, and there are many high-paying jobs for them to choose from.

Stacker used data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics to find the 50 highest-paying jobs out of nearly 500 that don’t require a college degree. Jobs are ranked by annual wages; those without annual wages available were not considered. Other experience and training requirements, as well as employment levels and projections, were also included in the analysis but don’t affect the rankings.

College enrollment has dropped off in the last few years after a historic high, partially thanks to the COVID-19 pandemic. If you are among those who aren’t sure if college is the best fit for you, whether due to the cost or other factors, you can rest easy knowing there are plenty of career paths available.

Whether you want a technical and mechanical career in repairs or to supervise a retail shop, there are many options for noncollege graduates. Just keep in mind that some of the careers listed here require other forms of education or licensure, including specialized training programs or apprenticeships.

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#50. Electrical and electronics repairers, commercial and industrial equipment

– Median annual wage, 2021: $61,730
– Typical education needed: Postsecondary nondegree award
— 69.2% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Long-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 52,800
— Expected change by 2031: 1,200 jobs added

Oleg Golovnev // Shutterstock

#49. First-line supervisors of production and operating workers

– Median annual wage, 2021: $61,790
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 74.1% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: Less than 5 years
— Typical on-the-job training required: None
– Number of jobs in 2021: 646,800
— Expected change by 2031: 12,200 jobs added

rawpixel.com // Shutterstock

#48. Real estate brokers

– Median annual wage, 2021: $62,010
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 39.2% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: Less than 5 years
— Typical on-the-job training required: None
– Number of jobs in 2021: 123,100
— Expected change by 2031: 7,100 jobs added

Syda Productions // Shutterstock

#47. Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants

– Median annual wage, 2021: $62,060
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 44.6% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: Less than 5 years
— Typical on-the-job training required: None
– Number of jobs in 2021: 508,000
— Expected change by 2031: 102,600 jobs lost

Rebekah Zemansky // Shutterstock

#46. First-line supervisors of correctional officers

– Median annual wage, 2021: $62,220
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 57.7% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: Less than 5 years
— Typical on-the-job training required: None
– Number of jobs in 2021: 55,900
— Expected change by 2031: 3,300 jobs lost

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#45. Crane and tower operators

– Median annual wage, 2021: $62,240
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 89.1% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: Less than 5 years
— Typical on-the-job training required: Moderate-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 45,100
— Expected change by 2031: 200 jobs added

Monkey Business Images // Shutterstock

#44. Insurance appraisers, auto damage

– Median annual wage, 2021: $62,680
– Typical education needed: Postsecondary nondegree award
— 38.5% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Moderate-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 13,200
— Expected change by 2031: 700 jobs lost

Oil and Gas Photographer // Shutterstock

#43. Control and valve installers and repairers, except mechanical door

– Median annual wage, 2021: $62,760
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 76.8% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Moderate-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 45,700
— Expected change by 2031: 300 jobs added

socrates471 // Shutterstock

#42. Media and communication equipment workers, all other

– Median annual wage, 2021: $63,250
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 40.4% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Short-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 20,700
— Expected change by 2031: 1,000 jobs added

kittirat roekburi // Shutterstock

#41. Stationary engineers and boiler operators

– Median annual wage, 2021: $63,500
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 67.4% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Long-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 32,500
— Expected change by 2031: 1,300 jobs added

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ded pixto // Shutterstock

#40. Wellhead pumpers

– Median annual wage, 2021: $63,740
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 80.1% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: Less than 5 years
— Typical on-the-job training required: Moderate-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 18,000
— Expected change by 2031: 600 jobs added

Canva

#39. Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators and locomotive firers

– Median annual wage, 2021: $63,840
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 73.8% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Moderate-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 11,800
— Expected change by 2031: 100 jobs added

Canva

#38. Railroad conductors and yardmasters

– Median annual wage, 2021: $63,960
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 76.2% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Moderate-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 34,300
— Expected change by 2031: 1,600 jobs added

Canva

#37. Boilermakers

– Median annual wage, 2021: $64,290
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 92.3% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Apprenticeship
– Number of jobs in 2021: 13,900
— Expected change by 2031: 600 jobs lost

Canva

#36. Fire inspectors and investigators

– Median annual wage, 2021: $64,600
– Typical education needed: Postsecondary nondegree award
— 54.8% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: 5 years or more
— Typical on-the-job training required: Moderate-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 15,500
— Expected change by 2031: 500 jobs added

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pio3 // Shutterstock

#35. Police and sheriff’s patrol officers

– Median annual wage, 2021: $64,610
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 43.4% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Moderate-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 684,900
— Expected change by 2031: 21,500 jobs added

JL IMAGES // Shutterstock

#34. Transit and railroad police

– Median annual wage, 2021: $64,930
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 43.4% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Moderate-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 3,500
— Expected change by 2031: 100 jobs added

Monkey Business Images // Shutterstock

#33. Claims adjusters, examiners, and investigators

– Median annual wage, 2021: $65,080
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 38.5% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Long-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 314,300
— Expected change by 2031: 18,300 jobs lost

santi lumubol // Shutterstock

#32. Aircraft mechanics and service technicians

– Median annual wage, 2021: $65,380
– Typical education needed: Postsecondary nondegree award
— 66.1% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: None
– Number of jobs in 2021: 131,700
— Expected change by 2031: 8,000 jobs added

Canva

#31. Chemical plant and system operators

– Median annual wage, 2021: $70,200
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 76.8% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Moderate-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 22,400
— Expected change by 2031: 200 jobs lost

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#30. Gas compressor and gas pumping station operators

– Median annual wage, 2021: $70,720
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 80.1% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Moderate-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 3,000
— Expected change by 2031: No change

4 PM production // Shutterstock

#29. First-line supervisors of mechanics, installers, and repairers

– Median annual wage, 2021: $71,260
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 72.3% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: Less than 5 years
— Typical on-the-job training required: None
– Number of jobs in 2021: 544,700
— Expected change by 2031: 19,800 jobs added

sculpies // Shutterstock

#28. First-line supervisors of construction trades and extraction workers

– Median annual wage, 2021: $72,010
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 81.9% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: 5 years or more
— Typical on-the-job training required: None
– Number of jobs in 2021: 735,500
— Expected change by 2031: 29,900 jobs added

Syda Productions // Shutterstock

#27. Farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural managers

– Median annual wage, 2021: $73,060
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 62.9% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: 5 years or more
— Typical on-the-job training required: None
– Number of jobs in 2021: 847,600
— Expected change by 2031: 23,600 jobs lost

Canva

#26. Pile driver operators

– Median annual wage, 2021: $76,260
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 91.4% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Moderate-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 3,900
— Expected change by 2031: 200 jobs added

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HannaTor // Shutterstock

#25. Gambling managers

– Median annual wage, 2021: $76,910
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 47.9% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: Less than 5 years
— Typical on-the-job training required: None
– Number of jobs in 2021: 4,100
— Expected change by 2031: 500 jobs added

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#24. Electrical and electronics installers and repairers, transportation equipment

– Median annual wage, 2021: $77,250
– Typical education needed: Postsecondary nondegree award
— 69.2% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Long-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 9,200
— Expected change by 2031: 300 jobs added

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#23. Athletes and sports competitors

– Median annual wage, 2021: $77,300
– Typical education needed: No formal educational credential
— 36.6% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Long-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 15,800
— Expected change by 2031: 5,700 jobs added

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#22. Gas plant operators

– Median annual wage, 2021: $77,850
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 76.8% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Long-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 15,300
— Expected change by 2031: 1,400 jobs lost

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#21. First-line supervisors of firefighting and prevention workers

– Median annual wage, 2021: $78,230
– Typical education needed: Postsecondary nondegree award
— 44.3% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: Less than 5 years
— Typical on-the-job training required: Moderate-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 82,800
— Expected change by 2031: 3,400 jobs added

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#20. Electrical power-line installers and repairers

– Median annual wage, 2021: $78,310
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 76.5% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Long-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 126,600
— Expected change by 2031: 4,000 jobs added

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#19. Petroleum pump system operators, refinery operators, and gaugers

– Median annual wage, 2021: $79,540
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 76.8% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Moderate-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 35,300
— Expected change by 2031: 1,000 jobs added

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#18. First-line supervisors of nonretail sales workers

– Median annual wage, 2021: $79,680
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 48.6% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: Less than 5 years
— Typical on-the-job training required: None
– Number of jobs in 2021: 406,900
— Expected change by 2031: 1,400 jobs lost

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#17. Locomotive engineers

– Median annual wage, 2021: $79,740
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 75.7% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: Less than 5 years
— Typical on-the-job training required: Moderate-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 26,600
— Expected change by 2031: 1,300 jobs added

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#16. Transportation inspectors

– Median annual wage, 2021: $79,770
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 64.3% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Moderate-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 24,900
— Expected change by 2031: 500 jobs added

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#15. Postmasters and mail superintendents

– Median annual wage, 2021: $80,250
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 36.8% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: Less than 5 years
— Typical on-the-job training required: Moderate-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 12,300
— Expected change by 2031: 600 jobs lost

APChanel // Shutterstock

#14. Signal and track switch repairers

– Median annual wage, 2021: $80,570
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 79.3% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Moderate-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 6,800
— Expected change by 2031: 200 jobs added

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#13. Power plant operators

– Median annual wage, 2021: $80,850
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 62.5% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Long-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 29,200
— Expected change by 2031: 4,500 jobs lost

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#12. Subway and streetcar operators

– Median annual wage, 2021: $81,180
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 73.8% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Moderate-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 10,600
— Expected change by 2031: 400 jobs added

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#11. Captains, mates, and pilots of water vessels

– Median annual wage, 2021: $81,640
– Typical education needed: Postsecondary nondegree award
— 71.9% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: Less than 5 years
— Typical on-the-job training required: None
– Number of jobs in 2021: 36,800
— Expected change by 2031: 400 jobs added

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#10. Ship engineers

– Median annual wage, 2021: $82,410
– Typical education needed: Postsecondary nondegree award
— 75.6% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: Less than 5 years
— Typical on-the-job training required: None
– Number of jobs in 2021: 7,900
— Expected change by 2031: 100 jobs lost

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#9. Detectives and criminal investigators

– Median annual wage, 2021: $83,640
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 29.9% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: Less than 5 years
— Typical on-the-job training required: Moderate-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 112,900
— Expected change by 2031: 800 jobs lost

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#8. Electrical and electronics repairers, powerhouse, substation, and relay

– Median annual wage, 2021: $93,420
– Typical education needed: Postsecondary nondegree award
— 69.2% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: Less than 5 years
— Typical on-the-job training required: Moderate-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 22,800
— Expected change by 2031: 1,100 jobs lost

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#7. Elevator and escalator installers and repairers

– Median annual wage, 2021: $97,860
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 77.5% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Apprenticeship
– Number of jobs in 2021: 23,200
— Expected change by 2031: 700 jobs added

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#6. Transportation, storage, and distribution managers

– Median annual wage, 2021: $98,230
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 60.9% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: 5 years or more
— Typical on-the-job training required: None
– Number of jobs in 2021: 150,700
— Expected change by 2031: 12,700 jobs added

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#5. Power distributors and dispatchers

– Median annual wage, 2021: $98,530
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 62.5% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Long-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 9,700
— Expected change by 2031: 600 jobs lost

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#4. First-line supervisors of police and detectives

– Median annual wage, 2021: $99,330
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 37.4% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: Less than 5 years
— Typical on-the-job training required: Moderate-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 132,300
— Expected change by 2031: 3,700 jobs added

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#3. Commercial pilots

– Median annual wage, 2021: $99,640
– Typical education needed: Postsecondary nondegree award
— 18.2% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Moderate-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 47,700
— Expected change by 2031: 2,400 jobs added

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#2. Nuclear power reactor operators

– Median annual wage, 2021: $104,260
– Typical education needed: High school diploma or equivalent
— 62.5% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: Long-term
– Number of jobs in 2021: 4,800
— Expected change by 2031: 1,300 jobs lost

Kokulina // Shutterstock

#1. Makeup artists, theatrical and performance

– Median annual wage, 2021: $134,750
– Typical education needed: Postsecondary nondegree award
— 67.9% of workers in this job don’t have a degree
— Typical related experience required: None
— Typical on-the-job training required: None
– Number of jobs in 2021: 4,400
— Expected change by 2031: 300 jobs added

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