Sofia-Rose Adams skillfully scoops ice cream onto cones and manages the cash register at Les Gourmandes cafe and ice cream parlor in Canada’s Montreal region.
The 13-year-old, who wears a blue cap and round glasses, is one of an increasing number of teens who have decided to work after school, helping to address the country’s labor shortage.
“I wanted a part-time job, work hours here and there, to earn some pocket money,” said Adams.
For the teenager, who is into music and improvisational theatre, it is “normal to start working” at her age.
In Canada’s francophone province of Quebec, there is no minimum age to work — only parental authorization is required for those under 14 years old.
There is also no limit on the number of hours worked as long as it is not during school hours or at night for those who are under 16.
In Les Gourmandes’ kitchen, other teenage girls prepare soups. Seven of the eight employees of the small business are under 18 years old.
“After the pandemic, we found ourselves with major hiring problems,” said owner Marie-Eve Guertin, who had to turn to employees under 15 this year for the first time in almost a decade of operating the restaurant.
“For full-time jobs, it’s very difficult. I haven’t received any resumes,” Guertin said, so she turned to teenagers to keep her business afloat.
“You want to grow a business, you don’t want to restrict it,” she said, wanting to avoid reducing opening hours as many other restaurants have done.
In Quebec, the latest unemployment rate is 3.9 percent, while the country wide figure is 5.1 percent. The lack of workers in almost every sector has forced businesses to be creative to meet their needs. For some, that has meant hiring teenagers, and in some cases, pre-teens.
– ‘Demonstration of autonomy’ –
While there is no data available on the number of children under 14 in the labor market, statistics show that half of Quebecers aged 15 to 19 have jobs.
“I started working at 14,” said Philippe Marcil, now 17 and an employee of a men’s clothing store in a Montreal suburb.
“I understood from a young age that it was important to gain experience in the labor market, so I wanted to experiment with that,” said the young man, who previously worked for two years as a supervisor at a fast food chain.
The avid hockey player and runner, who wants to become a lawyer, said he manages to find a balance between social life, work and studies by making “pretty precise schedules,” which he tries to stick to as much as possible.
Marcil, who is also very invested in school, has imposed a limit of 15 hours of paid work per week on himself, so his professional life does not encroach on his studies.
Charles Fleury, a sociologist and industrial relations professor at Laval University in Quebec City, said child labor “has always been somewhat present in Quebec, especially if we compare to European countries.”
“Whether you are a child from a privileged or disadvantaged family, there is really this kind of validation of work as a demonstration of autonomy,” he said.
But what is new is that with the labor shortage, the type of jobs are changing. Today, teenagers are no longer content with babysitting, delivering newspapers or picking fruit on a farm.
And this is beginning to stir concerns: Quebec Minister of Labor Jean Boulet recently commented that he did not find it “normal” for 11-year-old children to be working and suggested that Quebec was considering legislation to better regulate the work of most youth.
Elsewhere in Canada, minors are also allowed to work, but the minimum age and parental permissions required vary from province to province.
Even if these teenagers decide on their own to enter the labor market, “there is still a risk of encouraging school failure and dropping out,” Fleury warned.
It’s (not) alive! Google row exposes AI troubles
An internal fight over whether Google built technology with human-like consciousness has spilled into the open, exposing the ambitions and risks inherent in artificial intelligence that can feel all too real.
The Silicon Valley giant suspended one of its engineers last week who argued the firm’s AI system LaMDA seemed “sentient,” a claim Google officially disagrees with.
Several experts told AFP they were also highly skeptical of the consciousness claim, but said human nature and ambition could easily confuse the issue.
“The problem is that… when we encounter strings of words that belong to the languages we speak, we make sense of them,” said Emily M. Bender, a linguistics professor at University of Washington.
“We are doing the work of imagining a mind that’s not there,” she added.
LaMDA is a massively powerful system that uses advanced models and training on over 1.5 trillion words to be able to mimic how people communicate in written chats.
The system was built on a model that observes how words relate to one another and then predicts what words it thinks will come next in a sentence or paragraph, according to Google’s explanation.
“It’s still at some level just pattern matching,” said Shashank Srivastava, an assistant professor in computer science at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
“Sure you can find some strands of really what would appear meaningful conversation, some very creative text that they could generate. But it quickly devolves in many cases,” he added.
Still, assigning consciousness gets tricky.
It has often involved benchmarks like the Turing test, which a machine is considered to have passed if a human has a written chat with one, but can’t tell.
“That’s actually a fairly easy test for any AI of our vintage here in 2022 to pass,” said Mark Kingwell, a University of Toronto philosophy professor.
“A tougher test is a contextual test, the kind of thing that current systems seem to get tripped up by, common sense knowledge or background ideas — the kinds of things that algorithms have a hard time with,” he added.
– ‘No easy answers’ –
AI remains a delicate topic in and outside the tech world, one that can prompt amazement but also a bit of discomfort.
Google, in a statement, was swift and firm in downplaying whether LaMDA is self-aware.
“These systems imitate the types of exchanges found in millions of sentences, and can riff on any fantastical topic,” the company said.
“Hundreds of researchers and engineers have conversed with LaMDA and we are not aware of anyone else making… wide-ranging assertions, or anthropomorphizing LaMDA,” it added.
At least some experts viewed Google’s response as an effort to shut down the conversation on an important topic.
“I think public discussion of the issue is extremely important, because public understanding of how vexing the issue is, is key,” said academic Susan Schneider.
“There are no easy answers to questions of consciousness in machines,” added the founding director of the Center for the Future of the Mind at Florida Atlantic University.
Lack of skepticism by those working on the topic is also possible at a time when people are “swimming in a tremendous amount of AI hype,” as linguistics professor Bender put it.
“And lots and lots of money is getting thrown at this. So the people working on it have this very strong signal that they’re doing something important and real” resulting in them not necessarily “maintaining appropriate skepticism,” she added.
In recent years AI has also suffered from bad decisions — Bender cited research that found a language model could pick up racist and anti-immigrant biases from doing training on the internet.
Kingwell, the University of Toronto professor, said the question of AI sentiency is part “Brave New World” and part “1984,” two dystopian works that touch on issues like technology and human freedom.
“I think for a lot of people, they don’t really know which way to turn, and hence the anxiety,” he added.
‘Lightyear’ banned in 14 markets after same-sex kiss controversy
Disney’s latest animation “Lightyear,” which features a same-sex kiss, has been denied release in more than a dozen mainly Muslim countries, a source close to the company told AFP on Tuesday.
Countries across Asia and the Middle East have refused to give Pixar’s “Toy Story” spinoff a showing, in the latest development for parent company Disney as it tries to navigate differing public and political attitudes on LGBTQ issues.
Regulators in the United Arab Emirates this week announced they were banning the movie for “violation of the country’s media content standards,” tweeting a picture of titular hero Buzz Lightyear in a red “No” symbol.
Indonesia — the world’s largest Muslim-majority country — said it had not banned the film, “but suggested the owner of the movie think about their audience in Indonesia where an LGBT kissing scene is still considered sensitive.”
Rommy Fibri Hardiyanto, head of Indonesia’s censoring office overseen by the Ministry of Education and Culture, told AFP that Disney has not offered a re-cut version of “Lightyear.”
In neighbouring Malaysia, the Film Censorship Board said if cuts were not made the film would not be screened in the country.
“It is not appropriate to show the two scenes, and they are not suitable to be viewed by children,” an official, who declined to be named, told AFP.
Disney is understood to have declined to make any cuts, offering the film “as is” in all markets.
As a result, a total of 14 countries and territories where the company wanted to show “Lightyear” have not granted the film a release, AFP has learned.
The others are: Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, the Palestinian Territories, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Syria.
– Backstory –
“Lightyear” tells the backstory of the main character from the hit franchise “Toy Story”, an action figure who believes he is real.
The film follows Buzz Lightyear — supposedly the astronaut adventurer that inspired the figurine — as he and his fellow space rangers crash land on a hostile planet.
One scene depicts Buzz’s best friend Alisha Hawthorne kissing her wife.
The scene was already the subject of controversy in the United States, where it had originally been cut from the final film.
Pixar and Disney backtracked after employees called them out, saying one of the world’s largest entertainment companies was not sufficiently committed to defending the rights of LGBTQ people.
The controversy came on the heels of a law adopted in Florida, where Disney employs some 75,000 people, which bans the discussion of sexual orientation in public schools. The company was initially silent on the measure.
Under pressure from the public and his own employees, Disney CEO Bob Chapek eventually denounced the so-called “Don’t Say Gay” law, but in doing so drew the ire of Republican lawmakers in the state.
Conservative politicians are now seeking to remove certain perks the company has long enjoyed.
The episode has led to Disney becoming a whipping boy for right-wing media, where the name is shorthand for what they say is performative “wokeness.”
Eletrobras goes private with Bolsonaro bell ring
Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro rang the bell at the Sao Paulo stock exchange Tuesday to mark the start of trading in shares of newly privatized electricity company Eletrobras, the second-biggest stock offering worldwide this year.
The launch dilutes the Brazilian government’s stake in Eletrobras, Latin America’s biggest electricity company, from 72 percent to 45 percent.
It is part of Bolsonaro’s plans to privatize state-run companies en masse — a promise he has largely failed to deliver on nearing the end of his four-year term and facing an uphill battle to win reelection in October.
The share offering raised around 30 billion reais ($6 billion).
Economy Minister Paulo Guedes hailed it as a victory for private-sector efficiency.
“The biggest clean-energy generating company in the world is now free,” he said at the event.
“It’s like a child who left home at 18 and is going to go out and triumph. It no longer needs the protection of the state, which was becoming detrimental.”
Bolsonaro grinned and embraced Guedes as a hail of confetti fell, but did not speak at the event.
Guedes says Eletrobras needs to invest 16 billion reais a year to maintain its market share, but was previously only managing around three billion reais a year.
Critics worry the privatization could lead to higher bills for customers.
The event drew a small protest by dozens of demonstrators outside the stock exchange.
The Bolsonaro administration has also voiced interest recently in privatizing oil firm Petrobras, the biggest company in Brazil.
The state-run firm has drawn the far-right president’s ire with a series of recent price increases that are fueling high inflation.
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