Elon Musk knows how to dominate a news cycle, but for all the coverage of the world’s richest man, the tech billionaire’s early life in apartheid-era South Africa remains sketchy.
Amid Musk’s roller-coaster pursuit of Twitter, his father Errol Musk told AFP in an interview that he had tried to raise his sons “as South African boys”, instilling in them the same discipline he learnt in the military.
“I was a strict father. My word was the law. They learnt from me,” the 76-year-old said.
He said that even as a pre-schooler, Elon had set his sights on becoming the wealthiest man alive, crediting that uber-macho “South African boy” upbringing with driving his ambition.
“It’s part of the way we lived, the way I lived. We strove to be the best we could,” he told AFP in an interview from his home in the quaint oceanside town of Langebaan, 120 kilometres (70 miles) from Cape Town.
“I strove to be the best in the type of business that I was in,” the retired engineer and property developer said.
“It’s sort of our make-up. So we sort of expect that.”
Musk was born in Pretoria on June 28, 1971, to Errol and Maye, a Canadian model and dietitian who grew up in South Africa.
He was the oldest of three children, closely followed in age by his brother Kimbal and sister Tosca.
He left South Africa at the height of apartheid to avoid the unpopular army draft.
After his parents’ acrimonious divorce, Elon decided to live with his father — taking an overnight train alone when he moved in.
“I go down to Johannesburg Station and there was this little Elon, beaming face, come up on the train by himself, nine years old,” his father recalled.
Yet Elon has said on numerous occasions that he had an unhappy childhood.
As an adult, father and son suffered a major split when Errol had a child in 2017 with a stepdaughter four decades his junior.
“Elon thought that was not very good. From my point of view, I take life as it comes,” the elder Musk said.
But he says their relationship has since improved.
“We care about each other,” Errol said.
– ‘Typically Elon’ –
Errol says his son has always been unusual — long before his controversial outbursts on Twitter.
As a child, Elon spoke without a filter, played pranks and often joined adult conversations, he recalled.
“Even as young as four years old, he would tend to sit with adult people,” said Errol.
He recounted one occasion when “one man said to him, ‘Hey little chap, why don’t you join the kids and run around?’ And he’d say, ‘No, I prefer to listen to you’.”
When young Elon announced that he planned to be a millionaire, his father remembered, another adult scoffed at the boy.
He remembered “this man laughing, holding his drink and cigarette and saying, ‘When you grow up you’ll see. It’s not like that… you’re going to be disappointed’.”
Elon responded, “‘Well, I think you’re stupid’,” said Errol.
“That’s typically Elon,” said the father.
He also recalled a time when Elon made a hurtful comment to a schoolmate about his father’s suicide.
The boy pushed Elon down a staircase at school, injuring him so badly he had to be hospitalised.
When he heard what had happened, Errol wanted to defend his son.
“But I realised Elon overstepped the mark with this little boy. I had to drop it,” he said.
After that incident, Errol moved Elon to the prestigious Pretoria Boys High School.
One of the school’s ex-headmasters confirmed to AFP that Elon had donated one million rand ($64,500, 60,000 euros) to his alma mater.
– ‘Very caring’ –
The donation was organised through Musk’s assistant. That’s also how his father communicates with him.
During the interview with AFP, Errol received what he said was an email from Elon offering to pay for recent eye surgery.
“Elon is a very caring person. He really means it when he says that he wants to save humanity. This is not a slogan or some sort of pitch. This is real.”
Errol recalls his 70th birthday as another example of Elon’s generosity.
“I’m a South African man. I’m not concerned about my birthday. But it was very nice,” said Errol.
Unbeknown to him, Elon had invited a bunch of his celebrity friends, including Hollywood stars.
During the lunch, they discussed his support for former US president Donald Trump.
“They all had a good laugh at that, and how could I be so stupid as to support Trump?”
That was his last physical interaction with his son, six years ago. They rarely speak on the phone — something he says is not unusual.
DR Congo drug manufacturing plan sparks safety concerns
Sitting at his desk overlooking a pharmaceutical factory floor on the outskirts of the Congolese capital Kinshasa, Joss Ilunga Dijimba, 52, cracked a jovial smile.
“It’s not easy doing business in Congo,” he said.
His family was forced to relocate the factory in the 1990s to survive bouts of mass looting. And nowadays, there are onerous taxes, customs duties, and problems retaining talented staff.
His company, which employs about 40 people and produces generics such as paracetamol, is one of a tiny number of drug manufacturers in the Democratic Republic of Congo, an impoverished nation roughly the size of Western Europe.
But a government plan to require hospitals and NGOs to buy more locally produced drugs could soon boost the fledgling pharmaceutical industry — despite fears in some quarters that safety standards are far below international norms.
Several NGOs, some of which provide medical care in the DRC’s conflict-torn east, have requested opt-outs.
At the small Pharmagros plant, behind barbed-wire walls near the Congo river, men in hairnets and white coats formulate medicines with imported precursor using lab equipment in airconditioned rooms.
“Promoting local industry’s a good thing,” said Dijimba, a University of Texas graduate, insisting that several Congolese firms, including his, maintained high standards.
“It could grow the middle class.”
About 73 percent of the DRC’s population of 90 million lives on under $1.9 a day, according to the World Bank. Most products in the African country are imported.
– ‘At your own peril’ –
The Congolese government has designated 35 drug molecules, including paracetamol, that medical facilities will be required to purchase in locally made form.
The government wants to stimulate business without banning imports, said Donatien Kabamb Kabey, the pharmaceuticals director at the DRC’s health ministry.
He explained that all the molecules can be replaced with imported equivalents, suggesting that ibuprofen could replace paracetamol, for example.
Although not yet implemented, the policy already appears to be working.
Fifteen new pharma businesses are setting up in the DRC ahead of the new rules, Kabey said, which will add to the existing 24.
The policy was partly designed to encourage factories to return after fleeing the country in the 1990s, he added, when unpaid soldiers went on the rampage towards the end of ex-dictator Mobutu Sese Seko’s reign.
But experts warn that Congolese-made medicines face a major challenge: reassuring doctors and patients that they meet regulatory standards.
“When you go to the private sector in Congo, you do it at your own peril,” said Ed Vreeke, who runs the Belgium-based independent pharmaceutical auditing firm Quamed.
“They know darn well that the quality they produce is not good.”
Vreeke said Congolese regulators had improved, but the country lacked the massive resources needed to properly perform audits, check labels, and inspect the chemical composition of drugs for safety.
Kabey, whose department at the health ministry oversees inspections, said standards had improved “enormously” in recent years, but did not provide further details.
He said the government was establishing a national quality-control lab.
– ‘A huge thing’ –
Shoddy or falsified medicines kill hundreds of thousands of people every year, according to the World Health Organization, mostly in poor countries.
The DRC’s hot and humid climate also poses storage problems.
A 2021 study of both imported and locally produced eye drops sold in Kinshasa, for example, showed that three out of the seven products tested were substandard. The one sample manufactured in the DRC was contaminated.
Outside a pharmacy in Kinshasa’s upmarket Gombe district, clutching a bag of medicines, 29-year-old corporate lawyer Joelle Mamputu said she didn’t pay attention to where drugs were made but said she had “no prejudice”.
However, a 52-year-old public servant named Olivier said there was “quite a difference” between Congolese and foreign drugs.
He added he would buy Congolese drugs were the quality the same.
Despite official assurances, major international NGOs such as Doctors Without Borders (MSF) and Medecins du Monde (MDM) have requested opt-outs from the purchasing requirements, several humanitarian workers said.
MSF declined to comment.
MDM confirmed it had asked for an exemption due to concerns over quality and capacity to meet demand.
“It’s a huge thing,” said one humanitarian who asked for anonymity, explaining that the new rules will affect all non-governmental organisations, hospitals and pharmacies.
Many aid workers understand the need to promote enterprise, he said, but there are internal disagreements about whether to compromise on quality.
“We need to have high quality standards for everyone, but the reality of the country is that sometimes it’s impossible”.
Mixed fortunes of celebrities who leapt on NFT craze
Sports, film and music stars have all flocked to the NFT market to buy pictures of apes, endorse corporate partners or even launch their own art collections.
Even as the crypto sector suffers a rout with sales and values plunging and scams proliferating, celebrities continue to sign up to the craze for so-called Non-Fungible Tokens.
– Gone Ape –
The Bored Ape Yacht Club is the ground zero of NFT “collectables”.
It features cartoon images replicated thousands of times with algorithm-generated variations.
The initial collection of 10,000 computer generated images has been followed by several other generations and many millions of fakes.
To fans, they are a status symbol, a key to an exclusive club where ordinary folk can mix with the famous and wealthy.
Brazilian footballer Neymar and tennis legend Serena Williams tweeted out their ape images on the same day in January.
US talk show host Jimmy Fallon and socialite Paris Hilton showed off their apes on TV.
Madonna declared on Instagram in March that she had “entered the MetaVerse” with a purchase of an ape, reportedly for more than $500,000.
She was following the likes of musicians Justin Bieber, Eminem and Snoop Dogg, basketball luminaries Shaquille O’Neal and Stephen Curry, and actors including Gwyneth Paltrow.
To NFT critics, these apes symbolise all that is wrong in the crypto world — fundamentally worthless yet selling for vast sums with valuations based on hype.
And ultimately these celebrities don’t own the ape pictures in any traditional sense — anyone can download and use the images.
What they own is essentially a digital receipt linked to the picture.
But celebrity backing is vital.
The apes, along with cartoon collections like CryptoPunks, appear to be weathering the crash better than other parts of the crypto sector.
– Solo missions –
Celebrity NFT enthusiasts have gone a lot deeper into the industry than just buying ape images — plenty have created their own NFT collections, with mixed results.
US musician Grimes got in early, managing to bag almost $6 million for some fantasy-inspired art last year.
However, many of these NFTs are now all but worthless, selling for fractions of their original prices — when they sell at all.
Other collections have failed even to get off the ground. Wrestler John Cena sold just a handful of NFTs from a collection he put together last year with the WWE.
He admitted it was a “catastrophic failure”.
Skateboarder Tony Hawk has been more successful with sales, but at the cost of the admiration of some of his fans.
He announced on Twitter last year he would sell versions of his famous tricks as NFTs, prompting responses ranging from “Stop this Tony” to “Tony, no, not you too”.
Hawk has not mentioned the project on Twitter since, though he has continued to deal in NFTs.
– Just business –
One of the mainstays of the celebrity-NFT relationship is the old-fashioned brand endorsement.
This week, French megastar footballer Kylian Mbappe became the latest star to sign on as an “ambassador” and invest in French start-up Sorare.
The firm runs a fantasy football game where players can buy sports-card style NFTs.
Serena Williams, along with footballers Gerard Pique and Rio Ferdinand, have already invested in the game.
And not to be outdone, the world’s most famous footballer, Cristiano Ronaldo, last week announced a partnership with Binance, the world’s biggest crypto firm.
The offerings will apparently include designs created in collaboration with Ronaldo, who said in a statement he looked forward to “bringing unprecedented experiences and access through this NFT platform”.
In mine-infested sea, Romania aims to cut Russia gas reliance
Gas now flows to Romania from a new Black Sea platform operating in waters where mines and warships have been spotted.
The dangerous reminders of the war raging nearby in Ukraine underscore Romania’s determination to cut its reliance on Russian natural gas imports.
With fears growing across the European Union that Moscow will cut gas shipments in retaliation for EU support to Ukraine, countries are scrambling to find alternative supplies.
“Romania is taking a decisive step to ensure its energy security… at a time when international gas supplies are threatened by the war in Ukraine,” Prime Minister Nicolae Ciuca said on Tuesday as he inaugurated a processing plant belonging to Black Sea Oil & Gas (BSOG) in the southeastern village of Vadu.
While Romania has significant reserves on land and at sea, it still has to turn to Russia in winter to cover around 20 percent of its consumption.
Backed by American private equity firm Carlyle Group LP and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, BSOG began two weeks ago to tap into underwater deposits, becoming the first new offshore Black Sea development in the past 30 years.
The $400-million platform extracts three million cubic metres of gas per day. It is due to recover one billion cubic metres per year for 10 years, or around 10 percent of Romania’s needs.
“Today we are facing an emergency in terms of energy supply. We must put our old devils in the closet… and start producing locally,” said Thierry Bros, an expert on energy and the climate at Sciences Po university.
“We must relaunch the projects in the Black Sea, relaunch the growth of production in Norway, in the United Kingdom we must think of launching the production of shale gas and in France the production of mine gas” he told AFP.
– Mines and warships –
In Vadu, BSOG CEO Mark Beacom said he hopes that the “state-of-the-art” infrastructure put in place by his company will be used for future gas or renewable energy projects in the Black Sea.
But the invasion of neighbouring Ukraine by Russia has complicated the situation.
“We are not in a war zone, but we are close enough and it clearly has an impact,” he said.
“We’ve had mines detected close to the platform, we’ve had warships that go close to our platform and we’ve had airplanes circling our platform,” he added.
BSOG holds two concessions about 120 kilometres (65 nautical miles) from the Romanian coast, part of which, ironically, was recovered in 2009 by Bucharest from Ukraine, following a decision by the International Court of Justice in The Hague.
While Romania is counting on offshore gas reserves estimated at 200 billion cubic metres of gas, investors nevertheless remain cautious.
The Austrian group OMV and its Romanian partner Romgaz have yet to decide whether they will go ahead with the Neptun Deep project to tap between 42 billion and 84 billion cubic metres of gas.
– End of guaranteed energy? –
Bucharest hopes the two groups will launch extraction as soon as 2026, which would allow Romania to “become completely independent in terms of gas” and export the excess to its neighbours, said Energy Minister Virgil Popescu.
According to a 2018 study by auditing firm Deloitte, offshore gas could bring in $26 billion in tax revenue to Romania’s government over a planned 23-year period of operation.
After much delay, parliament finally amended in May a law unfavourable to offshore investments, which had notably prompted ExxonMobil to withdraw from the Neptun Deep project at the end of 2021, after having invested around $2 billion there jointly with OMV.
“If we want to win against the Russians, we need energy,” said Bros, warning that the time when “energy was guaranteed” within the EU may be over.
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