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10 stats that explain the state of digital currencies and assets today



PennyWorks compiled 10 statistics about the history of digital assets using research from CoinMarketCap, CoinGecko, and PitchBook.
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10 stats that explain the state of digital currencies and assets today

Cryptocurrency burst into the American lexicon in the late 2000s as an alternative to central bank-regulated fiat currencies. More than a decade later, the nascent digital currency is coming into its own as a mainstream asset watched and traded by investors around the world.

Americans’ online research into Bitcoin—the earliest cryptocurrency—apparently peaked in late 2017, according to Google Trends search data. Interest spiked again at the start of 2021 as young retail investors hyped up video game retailer GameStop’s stock and plowed their government stimulus checks into the markets. It was against this backdrop last year that public attention was drawn to other alternative assets like crypto and the emerging world of non-fungible tokens (NFTs).

But despite the recent speculative boomlet, crypto has existed since 2009, when Bitcoin first burst onto the post-2008 crash scene. The identity or identities of its creator–or perhaps creators–who introduced the first digital currency under the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto is one of the greatest mysteries of the Internet age.

Unlike the greenback or other paper money, crypto is an entirely virtual currency. It doesn’t exist in any tangible form except as numbers on a computer or server somewhere. Each denomination of a cryptocurrency—or each “coin”—is stored on a permanent ledger called the blockchain. The blockchain is a novel form of database that creates a secure and, in the case of Bitcoin, a publicly transparent digital record of transactions; however, there are other forms of cryptocurrency that promise more privacy than Bitcoin, such as Monero (XMR).

NFTs also utilize blockchain technology to create a truly unique identifier for a digital product like an image or a video that can be traded and owned. This has opened up new online revenue streams for digitally authenticated sports collectibles and athlete-endorsed memorabilia.

For better or worse, blockchain technology has introduced a level of scarcity to the internet. In the past, the internet was heralded as a frontier where everything was free and duplicatable. Now, blockchain tech allows for ownership of digital things by saying essentially: “There is only one authentic version of this thing, and it is the version attached to the unique identifier I purchased.” The introduction of scarcity via NFT blockchains has been a game-changer for modern artists—especially digital animators. NFTs exploded in popularity in 2021, seeing $30 billion in total investment over the year, according to a May report by blockchain research firm Chainalysis.

Somewhat similar to an asset like gold, Bitcoin has grown to become a preferred store of value for many investors today. There are estimated to be thousands of other cryptocurrencies utilizing blockchain tech, but Bitcoin has remained the most prevalent and valued.

Bitcoin itself has had a volatile history over the last decade, jumping from $1 per coin in 2011 to more than $1,200 USD around 2013 before falling back below $100 in 2014. Today, a single bitcoin trades for over $20,000.

The crypto market is currently experiencing a downturn; or, as crypto champion and billionaire Dallas Mavericks owner Mark Cuban has recently suggested, cryptocurrencies have flown too close to the Sun, propelled by the “easy money” and low-interest rates of the last two years—and now the market is finding a more reasonable price point.

Most importantly, crypto may draw closer to its original purpose as set out in the Bitcoin white paper published anonymously on October 31, 2008—serving as a trustless and privacy-enhancing medium of exchange rather than a speculative instrument. Trustlessness essentially means that, unlike with a regular bank wire or deposited check, no third party is supposed to be able to put a hold on the funds wired between the two parties.

To better understand how we arrived here, PennyWorks compiled this list of 10 statistics about digital assets using research from across the internet, including CoinMarketCap, CoinGecko, and PitchBook.

A vector displaying the Etherium logo

Pogorelova Olga // Shutterstock

Over $23 billion in Bitcoin is traded every day

There is an immense amount of value moving through today’s cryptocurrency markets.

In Bitcoin alone, $23 billion worth of the currency changes hands every day, according to CoinMarketCap data. Ethereum is the next most-traded cryptocurrency in the world, seeing $17.8 billion in trades daily.

Close up of an NFT marketplace on a mobile phone

Hassel Stock // Shutterstock

There have been 37 million NFTs sold since 2017

The NFT collection perhaps most associated with the industry is Bored Ape Yacht Club‘s 10,000 unique images of cartoon primates. But the world of collectible digital art hasn’t always been dominated by illustrations of monkeys in hats.

The first-ever NFT sold was an animated, oscillating geometric shape in .gif format. It was minted on the blockchain in 2014, and sold for $1.5 million. Some of the most valuable NFTs sold over the last year were illustrations belonging to the CryptoPunks collection, one of which went for $24 million.

A data center with computer racks in a network security server room


There are over 20,000 different cryptocurrencies

The number of different cryptocurrencies out there is a little mind-boggling—though experts predict the industry will see considerable consolidation over the coming years. It’s estimated that thousands of cryptocurrencies have already collapsed into obscurity, but roughly 10,000 are still actively traded, according to

The most popularly traded cryptocurrencies besides Bitcoin are Ether, Tether, USD Coin, Binance Coin (BNB), Binance USD, XRP, Cardano, and Solana.

Tether, USD Coin, and Binance USD are so-called “stable coins’ that attempt to track the value of the U.S. Dollar. These are intended to be a stable, decentralized, digitally-liquid alternative to the dollar but are often used by crypto investors to move in and out of digital assets.

Ether emerged in 2014 and has risen to be investors’ favorite crypto alternative to Bitcoin. The currency lives on its own proprietary blockchain software called Ethereum, which also doubles as a development sandbox for virtual and video game environments. In recent years, Monero has emerged as the choice of privacy advocates, hackers, and illicit sales on the dark web.


NFT works of art displayed on gallery wall

Noam Galai // Getty Images

The most expensive NFT sold for $91.8 million

The most expensive NFT ever sold is the brainchild of a renowned digital artist that goes by the pseudonym Pak. The sale was heralded as validation of the NFT industry as a viable ownership model for digital art. The collection included more than 312,000 individual pieces of art, which were purchased by nearly 30,000 individual investors.

Before the record-setting sale of the NFT collection—titled “Merge”Pak was known for creating Archillect, an AI that automatically curated and shared images matching popular aesthetics across social media platforms.

While the digital art world has commanded top dollar with NFTs, the sports memorabilia world has also embraced blockchain technology to authenticate autographs and trade digital collectibles. Sports NFT transactions are forecasted to just about double year over year in 2022, accounting for $2 billion in transactions, according to a report from Deloitte.

A woman checking Bitcoin price chart on a smartphone

oatawa // Shutterstock

Bitcoin’s price peaked at $68,789

Bitcoin’s price peaked at $68,789 per coin in November 2021. Bitcoin also experienced steep price peaks in December 2017, June 2019, and March 2021.

At the top of its 2017 bull run, Bitcoin was listed on the world’s largest futures exchange for the first time, opening the digital asset up to even more widespread adoption by retail investors. In late 2020, Bitcoin’s run-up in value was similar to the stock market’s, which was boosted by coordinated central banking policies meant to support prices and overcome pandemic-driven demand shocks.

Illustration of virtual metaverse land minted on the blockchain

Immersion Imagery // Shutterstock

One company paid $4.3 million for real estate in the metaverse

At the height of crypto enthusiasm in autumn 2021, a company called Republic Realm dropped $4.3 million on property in a virtual game world called Sandbox, built on the Ethereum blockchain. Republic Realm was rebranded as EveryRealm this year and now boasts an investment portfolio of more than 100 virtual real estate developments.

It was considered the largest public virtual real estate transaction in history – though it isn’t a long history. In 2006, virtual land was sold in a virtual world that was popular at the time called Second Life. Sandbox claims it has around 300,000 monthly active users and has struck partnerships with the likes of Snoop Dogg and Adidas.

Data analyzing exchange stock market with charts and quotes

Sodel Vladyslav // Shutterstock

At least 27 different publicly traded companies have invested in digital currencies

MicroStrategy, Tesla, Square, and Nexon are the most recognizable publicly traded companies that have added Bitcoin to their balance sheets, according to CoinGecko.

Analytics platform MicroStrategy has more capital invested in Bitcoin than in any other company. It owns $2.6 billion worth of Bitcoin. MicroStrategy has continued to buy Bitcoin this year, even as the price per coin has dropped.

Billionaire Elon Musk is famously gung-ho on cryptocurrency, and his electric vehicle company Tesla owns $968,000 worth of Bitcoin. Payment platform Square owns $161 million, and Japanese video game developer Nexon holds $34 million.

Some of the other companies with the largest amount of capital invested in Bitcoin, like Galaxy Digital Holdings, which owns $134 million in Bitcoin, are crypto investment firms.

Stressed crypto trader at computer

Ground Picture // Shutterstock

VC-backed crypto and blockchain company valuations reached $3.95 billion before 2022’s possible wave of crypto bankruptcies

Venture capital-backed crypto and blockchain companies have appeared resilient in their valuations, despite the sometimes volatile nature of digital assets.

Through April 2022, venture capitalists were on track to pump even more capital into late-stage crypto firms than they did in 2021. However, the bankruptcy filings of Celsius and Voyager Digital exchanges, as well as the flight of executives from the collapsed crypto hedge fund Three Arrows Capital, have spooked investors.

Since early May, more than $700 billion in value has been wiped off crypto markets amid a mass sell-off. Still, the price of Bitcoin today, for example, hovers around $20,000—levels last seen at the end of 2020.

Modern stock exchange showing crypto currency chart and numbers

Open Studio // Shutterstock

52% of institutional investors worldwide have invested in digital assets

Digital assets were once described as alternative investments; however, as a majority of institutional investors have now invested in them, that may no longer be the case, according to a 2021 report from Fidelity Investments’ digital assets arm.

A majority of the same investors surveyed by Fidelity in 2021 also said the price volatility of digital assets like Bitcoin was a major barrier to entry for investors. Institutional investors in Asia hold more digital assets in portfolios than investors do in Europe and the U.S.

Person using mobile phone to connect a Digital Wallet

Black Salmon // Shutterstock

There are over 83 million registered blockchain wallets

As a sign that new investors are joining the crypto movement, the number of blockchain wallet holders has grown by 10 million in the last year, according to A blockchain wallet is a digital tool that allows investors to store and track the cryptocurrencies they’ve purchased through exchanges.

Several wallets are available to investors, and some cryptocurrency exchanges offer their own wallets. Wallets also come in physical form, and both software-based and physical wallets provide different benefits and risks. Some consider a physical wallet a more secure method of private storage because it isn’t accessible via the internet, where bad actors lurk. Most notoriously, Japan-based exchange Mt. Gox was hacked in 2014, with thousands of Bitcoins being stolen by hackers.

One drawback to physical wallets is what happens if the device gets destroyed, as in a house fire or flood. But in many cases, Bitcoins that have been publicly identified as lost forever from circulation happened after the owners forgot their access keys or died without writing down or trusting anyone with their key passwords.

This story originally appeared on PennyWorks and was produced and
distributed in partnership with Stacker Studio.

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10 statistics that show the cost of a data breach to companies




Beyond Identity collected figures and statistics from IBM's 2022 Cost of a Data Breach Report to understand how data breaches impact companies and consumers.
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10 statistics that show the cost of a data breach to companies

How many businesses are ready to pony up several million in additional expenses this year? If history is any indicator, hundreds of companies will need to face the reality of cleaning up after a data breach before this time next year.

While a data breach costs a company millions on average, the toll can extend even further than just cleanup. Beyond Identity collected figures and statistics from IBM’s 2022 Cost of a Data Breach Report to understand how data breaches impacted companies and consumers. For the report, IBM conducted more than 3,000 interviews at 550 organizations that experienced a data breach.

A breach can cost the affected business $4.1 million on average globally. A data breach in the U.S. costs $9.44 million on average—the highest of any country in the world.

Billions of dollars in investments poured into cybersecurity startups in 2020, as companies began allowing employees to work from home for public health reasons. Demand for remote authentication rose as more workers logged in from multiple locations. Investors weren’t just betting on a remote work future—the case for heightened IT security had already been made prior to the pandemic.

The number of companies hit by hackers looking to steal data increased significantly during the decade preceding COVID-19’s arrival in the U.S.—and that trend is continuing. With less than five months remaining, 2022 is already shaping up to be a marquee year for cyberattacks. 

Remediation of servers and IT equipment after a breach can be costly. A data breach can also trigger government fines and legal fees in addition to actual costs. ut businesses also have to quantify the intangible losses to their reputations that could spread from a data breach.

If a thief gets away with intellectual property, the targeted business could lose its competitive edge in the market. The theft could also cause a loss of revenue for months or even years afterward. Data breaches impact a company’s brand as well. Minneapolis-based retail giant Target not only had to pay an $18.5 million settlement as a result of its infamous breach of credit card data in 2013, but it also had to worry about the subsequent damage to its reputation that executives pointed to for slumping sales.

The costs that accrue from these attacks are myriad, and companies’ vulnerabilities are only increasing as more businesses move operations online and to the cloud. With tensions between the U.S. and countries like Russia, North Korea, and China heating up, threat levels will likely remain heightened. U.S. House Rep. Nancy Pelosi’s visit to Taiwan recently triggered cyberattacks said to have originated in China. And Iran and entities related to the Islamic Republic have been conducting ransomware attacks against U.S. organizations since late 2020, according to cybersecurity firm CrowdStrike’s latest report on global cyberthreats.

IT coding on monitor screen.

BEST-BACKGROUNDS // Shutterstock

83% of organizations reported more than one data breach

A majority of the organizations that experienced a data breach last year experienced multiple breaches, IBM’s latest report reveals, and recurrence of data breaches is likely to increase.

The report also suggests that as workplaces have moved out of the office and into homes, organizations have become more vulnerable to recurring attacks. Tech giants like Yahoo, Amazon, and Facebook have experienced repeated data breaches over the past decade.

Attackers don’t just use malware, but also social engineering. In some repeated breaches, vulnerabilities that weren’t detected and patched in the initial attack were exploited again. In others, the attacker was able to manipulate workers—if the current or ex-worker isn’t the attacker—to gain access to IT systems.

Workers around security and data monitors. // Shutterstock

The average cost of a data breach was $4.35 million

The average cost of a data breach has jumped since the turn of the decade. IBM’s 2020 report calculated an average cost of $3.86 million—the most current data reflects an increase of 12.7%. The cost was lowest among public sector organizations and highest for health care organizations. Health care businesses have suffered some of the most wide-reaching data breaches exposing millions of peoples’ sensitive records, including in some cases Social Security numbers.

Software code on a computer screen.

Yurich // Shutterstock

The average cost of a ransomware attack was $4.54 million

The average cost globally of a ransomware attack was $4.54 million in 2022, per IBM. The total figure doesn’t include the cost of the payment made to the culprits demanding the ransom. The cost of this kind of data breach is just slightly higher than the overall average cost of all data breaches.

A 2022 study by Cyberseason suggests that the majority of companies that suffer ransomware attacks pay a ransom fee to the attacker. Experts deem paying a ransom futile. Most attackers will return demanding a second ransom, because the victim was willing to pay the first time.

The FBI does not condone paying ransom fees, and warns that doing so doesn’t guarantee data will be recovered. Even after being paid the ransom, attackers can maintain copies of stolen information, and sell it for additional profit. Unfortunately, a faceless cybercriminal is not beholden to contracts or agreements. A business may not know the data has been sold until user data emerges later or is exploited for further social engineering to steal employee identities.

System hacked alert after cyberattack on computer network.

NicoElNino // Shutterstock

Data breaches cost the health care industry $10.1 million—the highest of any field

No sector of the U.S. economy is more targeted than the health care industry. And for good reason—the health care industry maintains databases full of sensitive information that can be useful to criminals looking to steal identities. Hospitals are also critical infrastructure, privatized in the U.S., and remain a target for ideologically motivated foreign adversaries looking to disrupt Americans’ way of life.

The sector has led the ranking of costliest data breaches for the last 12 years IBM has performed its study. In 2022, there were at least 395 documented attacks on health care institutions in the U.S., according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Health systems based in Texas, Arizona, and Massachusetts have suffered data breaches that have impacted millions of consumers.

Close-up of a person's hand typing on a laptop.

Andrey_Popov // Shutterstock

60% of organizations increased consumer prices due to a data breach

Attacks on private sector businesses aren’t just a problem for companies—they’re a headache for consumers as well.

Since breaches can be costly to recover from, a majority of businesses say they’ve raised the price of their product or services, passing a portion of the cost on to their customers. And with government-measured inflation at a 40-year high, consumers are already feeling the squeeze elsewhere in their lives.

Coworkers in front of a computer in a modern office.

SFIO CRACHO // Shutterstock

On average, it took 207 days to identify a data breach and 70 more to contain it

Data suggests that the quicker a data breach is contained, the cheaper it will be to remediate and recover. The length of time between the breach occurring and when it is identified and contained is referred to as the data breach lifecycle.

An organization can trim nearly $1 million from the costs associated with a data breach if it’s contained within 200 days, according to IBM data collected from 2016 to 2022.

Phone lock screen with computer in the background.

Tero Vesalainen // Shutterstock

Stolen account credentials take the longest time to identify

A breach that involves stolen account credentials took 327 days on average to identify and contain in 2022, according to IBM. Breaches originating this way are also the fourth-most expensive type of data breach to contain and remediate, just behind those that originate from third-party software vulnerabilities, compromised business emails, and phishing attempts.

Man pointing on smartphone screen.

Rymden // Shutterstock

Breaches cost about $1 million more for companies that had a large share of remote employees

Security comes at a cost. Various companies and services charge top dollar for products advertised to help businesses monitor and remediate cyber intrusions. While some might hesitate at the price for such services, a breach can wind up costing much more. That’s especially true for companies that have leaned into the growing trend of remote work, IBM’s latest study shows.

The percentage of employees working remotely had an impact on the ultimate costs of data breaches. The cost of a data breach for a company where 1 in 5 workers work remotely averaged $3.99 million in 2022. A data breach at a company where more than 81% of employees work remotely costs $5.1 million on average, according to IBM.

Where there was once a centralized office and office-based network to protect, many organizations now have to think about each home network and device their employees are accessing for their jobs when developing a security plan.

Computer screen showing green coding with the word Hacked in red


Mega breaches cost between $50 and $387 million on average

A mega breach, or one in which 1 million or more records are compromised, can saddle a company with tens of millions in additional costs.

These massive attacks occur less often and vary widely in cost. A mega breach involving up to 10 million lost documents costs organizations $49 million on average in 2022, down slightly from the previous two years, per IBM’s tracking. That figure jumped to $387 million on average in 2022.

Female hands using tablet with password prompt.

mama_mia // Shutterstock

Almost 1 in 5 breaches were caused by stolen or compromised logins

Stolen login details are still the most common cause of a data breach. This is when the attacker obtains access to data either by purchasing stolen credentials on the black market or stealing them through phishing schemes or other methods.

Ever wanted to find out whether any of your credentials have been compromised in a breach? There’s a free tool for that called “Have I Been Pwned?”

This story originally appeared on Beyond Identity and was produced and
distributed in partnership with Stacker Studio.

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Ford’s electric drive reinvents historic Michigan factory




A cab is lowered on the frame of a battery-powered F-150 Lightning truck at Ford's Rouge Electric Vehicle Center in Dearborn, Michigan
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Construction crews are back at Dearborn, remaking Ford’s century-old industrial complex once again, this time for a post-petroleum era that is finally beginning to feel possible.

The manufacturing operation’s prime mission in recent times has been to assemble the best-selling F-150, a gasoline-powered vehicle.

The truck plant churns out a new pickup truck every 53 seconds in a well-oiled process that will continue for the foreseeable future.  

But in September 2020, Ford broke ground on a smaller facility on neighboring land, tasking the new operation with building a battery electric cousin to the internal combustion engine (ICE) F-150. 

The F-150 Lightning is part of a growing fleet of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) hitting the roadways from established automakers and upstarts.

At the Detroit Auto Show last week, President Joe Biden proclaimed that “the great American Road Trip is going to be fully electrified.”

After racking up some 200,000 reservations for the Lightning, Ford has announced expansions to quadruple output over the next year.

Will there be a tipping point where the Lightning could overtake the ICE model? That is a question on the minds of officials at Ford and rival Detroit automakers that are investing billions of dollars in BEVs while still producing millions of ICE vehicles.

“The industry is changing so quickly, I don’t think anybody has a good prediction of where it’s going to be,” Ford’s Chris Skaggs told AFP.  

“But we are reacting and getting the right resources to build batteries and scaling so that we can meet demand whatever that is,” said Skaggs, a veteran Ford operations manager who is leading the BEV plant expansion.  

“I’ve been doing this for 29 years, and I thought I would be retired before we even got to this point.”

– Storied history –

The Lightning marks the latest reinvention of the Dearborn Rouge industrial complex south of Detroit near the Rouge River.

The Rouge factory was built between 1917 and 1928 and originally planned to comprise all the components in car production, including tire-making, vehicle assembly, steelmaking and engine building. 

Peak employment topped 100,000 in the 1930s, a decade that also saw visits by artist Diego Rivera for his famed murals of auto workers.

The complex was enlisted to build fighter jet engines for the Allies’ World War II before assembling such iconic Ford vehicles as the Thunderbird and the Mustang, which was launched in the 1960s and is now assembled at a different Michigan factory.

The Rouge site — long emblematic of the moving assembly line that changed manufacturing history — began to look like a white elephant as Ford streamlined later in the twentieth century and pollution rendered it a brownfield site.

But William Clay Ford Jr., the great-grandson of Henry Ford, refused to shutter it, authorizing a $2 billion upgrade soon after becoming chairman in 1999.

Dearborn Truck plant opened in 2004 following extensive environmental cleanup and the installation of a “living roof” to make heating and cooling more efficient.

– ‘Flex’ capacity –

The younger Ford, who identified Rouge as “our heritage,” faced pushback internally on the Dearborn investment, which coincided with a trying period financially.

But it would be difficult to find fault with the staying power of the F-150, which has been the best-selling vehicle in the United States for four decades.

Three shifts populate the 4,500-employee Dearborn truck assembly plant, working around the clock.

The vehicle assembly process starts when the aluminum coils are stamped into panels on-site. The panels are assembled at the body shop and then painted before making their way to the assembly line.

The truck then proceeds through hundreds of work stations where the engine and other components are installed, and is then put through testing including wheels and headlamp alignment, camera-based inspections and electronic computer once-overs before shipping to the customer.

Ford does not release daily output figures, but each vehicle is assembled in hours once it arrives at the factory, Skaggs said.

In contrast to the ICE truck factory, which clanks with activity, the BEV plant operates at a modest hum, a quality partly due to the company’s focus on ergonomics. 

The BEV assembly process is also organized around production lines, but there are fewer work stations in an operation that is still gearing up for bigger things. The Rouge Electric Vehicle Center currently employs about 500.

The expansion will double the size of the BEV factory and add more workers and work stations, taking output to 150,000 annually by next fall, Skaggs said.

But the added productivity will be “flex,” Skaggs said, meaning it could be used for either ICE or BEV depending on demand.

“If we don’t call it right, we can build more ICE units… or if BEV really takes off like we all expect it to, we can scale this up.”

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5 common auto collision repairs and how much they cost



By compiled this list of five common auto collision repairs using information from across the internet. Cost estimates come from a variety of sources, including LendingTree and Chase Bank.   
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5 common auto collision repairs and how much they cost

There were 5.2 million nonfatal motor vehicle crashes in 2020, down 22% from 2019, according to the most recent complete data available from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The number of fatal crashes rose slightly (6.8%), while the number of people injured declined 17%. Most fatal crashes occur within 25 miles of home and at speeds of less than 40 miles per hour. compiled this list of five common auto collision repairs using information from across the internet. Cost estimates come from a variety of sources, including LendingTree and Chase Bank.

Owning a car can be expensive. The average yearly cost for a new vehicle in 2022 is $10,728, including fuel, maintenance, and insurance, according to August 2022 research from AAA. Repairs required after collisions can push up that price tag. While some damage, such as a small ding or minor mark in the paint, lends itself to do-it-yourself repairs, other work is better left to a professional.

Continue reading to learn about the cost of some of the most common repairs required after auto collisions.

Car with a dented rear bumper after an accident

Emily Skeels // Shutterstock

Bumper damage

Car bumpers are designed to absorb the energy of a crash and protect the front and back of the car in a low-speed collision. That includes the hood and trunk, grille, fuel, exhaust, and cooling systems, and headlights, taillights, and parking lights.

Repairs to a bumper can cost between $100 and $1,000, according to Eli’s, an auto body repair company in Southern California, while a replacement would run about $800 to $2,000. Because many modern vehicles have sensors and cameras in their bumpers, they must be replaced or repaired, adding to labor costs.

Car with damage to its left side doors

Kittipong33 // Shutterstock

Car door damage

Car door repairs can cost as little as $50 if you just need a small dent fixed. The price rises if the paint must be matched to fix scratches as well.

Modern car doors house complex wiring and mechanisms for locks and windows, which can be expensive to repair. If the door has more than minor dents and scratches, you might need to replace it. You could pay $800 for the door, plus several hundred dollars for the labor.

Scratch abrasion on car front bumper

ThamKC // Shutterstock

Scratched paint

When it comes to scratches on your car, it’s the depth of the damage that matters. That’s because the paint on your car has numerous layers of finish. Marks in the top clear coat are the easiest to fix. Deeper scratches can be a multilayer job, while those that reach the metal should be repaired quickly so the car does not rust.

If you have a newer car, a dealership can find the correct paint using the vehicle identification number or VIN. If you want to tackle the repair yourself, you can typically buy about 2 ounces of paint for $50 to $300. Dealerships will charge $150 to $1,000 to repair a scratch and twice that for work on the hood or doors.

Shattered front windshield on the right passenger side of a car

Elena Berd // Shutterstock

Cracked windshield

You might be able to leave small chips in your windshield—the ones caused by a pebble, ice, or other small debris from the road hitting your car. But larger cracks often spread and can obstruct your view. Before replacing the windshield, it’s important to ask yourself: Is it on the driver’s side, is there more than one crack, is it longer than 6 inches, and does it start at the edge?

A new windshield could cost between $250 and $400. For a luxury car, the price can run from $1,000 to more than $4,500. Repairing a chip on an older car typically ranges between $60 and $100.

Dented back panel on a right side of car

happycreator // Shutterstock

Dented panels

The price of repairing a dent can range widely, from $50 to $2,500. Small dents from rocks or hail, for example, can cost around $50 to $125 to fix. Larger dents resulting from a collision can cost $150 or more.

What drives up the price? A bumper, for example, might have electrical parts such as sensors. Dents might stretch across several panels, which would need replacing. More expensive work can include repainting or sanding.

This story originally appeared on and was produced and
distributed in partnership with Stacker Studio.

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