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Highest-paid CEOs in America

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Using data from the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Stacker listed the 100 highest-paid CEOs in the United States according to what they made in 2020, 2021, or 2022, depending on what data was available as of Nov. 30, 2022.  
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Among the hotly contested debates in the contemporary United States is what to make of the vast discrepancy that exists between the salaries of the country’s top-earning CEOs and the average worker within their companies.

Alex Edmans of the Harvard Business Review has likened the discrepancy to that of a band’s lead singer and bassist, alluding to the fact that people who perform tasks of varying levels of importance in a company ought to receive compensation that reflects these differing contributions.

Using data from the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Stacker listed the 100 highest-paid CEOs in the United States according to what they made in 2020, 2021, or 2022, depending on what data was available as of Nov. 30, 2022.

Read on to see how much the chief executives of top companies made.

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Charles Scharf in a gray suit.

Tom Williams/CQ-Roll Call, Inc // Getty Images

#100. Charles Scharf (Wells Fargo & Co.)

– 2021 salary: $21.4 million
– Median worker pay: $73,578 (290:1 ratio)

A magnifying glass over the Transdigm website showing an airplane.

Pavel Kapysh // Shutterstock

#99. Kevin Stein (TransDigm Group Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $21.5 million
– Median worker pay: $58,837 (365:1 ratio)

A Lilly headquarters building.

Michael Vi // Shutterstock

#98. David Ricks (Eli Lilly and Co.)

– 2021 salary: $21.5 million
– Median worker pay: $97,130 (221:1 ratio)

A Marsh & McLennan headquarters building.

JL IMAGES // Shutterstock

#97. Daniel Glaser (Marsh & McLennan Companies Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $21.5 million
– Median worker pay: $67,143 (321:1 ratio)

The Roper Technologies logo on a phone.

T.Schneider // Shutterstock

#96. L. Hunn (Roper Technologies Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $21.5 million
– Median worker pay: $98,550 (219:1 ratio)

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A person holding an invisalign mouth insert.

Ima_ss // Shutterstock

#95. Joseph Hogan (Align Technology Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $21.6 million
– Median worker pay: $13,011 (1,659:1 ratio)

Jamie Lannone on stage wearing a microphone.

Horacio Villalobos#Corbis/Corbis // Getty Images

#94. Jamie Iannone (eBay Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $21.7 million
– Median worker pay: $135,528 (160:1 ratio)

Robert Bradway behind a podium onstage.

Christopher Polk/Getty Images for International Medical Corps // Getty Images

#93. Robert Bradway (Amgen Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $21.7 million
– Median worker pay: $130,589 (166:1 ratio)

Cadence headquarters.

King4057 at English Wikipedia // Wikimedia Commons

#92. Anirudh Devgan (Cadence Design Systems Inc.)

– 2022 salary: $21.7 million
– Median worker pay: Not available

Peter Zaffino sitting at a table with a microphone a a press conference.

Alex Burstow/R&A/R&A // Getty Images

#91. Peter Zaffino (American International Group Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $21.9 million
– Median worker pay: $71,936 (305:1 ratio)

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Charles Schwab headquarters.

JOKER/Hartwig Lohmeyer/ullstein bild // Getty Images

#90. Walter Bettinger II (The Charles Schwab Corp.)

– 2021 salary: $21.9 million
– Median worker pay: $109,269 (201:1 ratio)

Autodesk building.

Coolcaesar at en.wikipedia // Wikimedia Commons

#89. Andrew Anagnost (Autodesk Inc.)

– 2022 salary: $22.1 million
– Median worker pay: $137,042 (161:1 ratio)

Caesar's Palace and casino.

? CDA Productions (Las Vegas) Inc, 2003 // Getty Images

#88. Thomas Reeg (Caesars Entertainment Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $22.6 million
– Median worker pay: $35,618 (634:1 ratio)

A Citrix Systems headquarters.

JHVEPhoto // Shutterstock

#87. David Henshall (Citrix Systems Inc.)

– 2020 salary: $22.6 million
– Median worker pay: $129,724 (174:1 ratio)

The exterior of a Chevron gas station.

Justin Sullivan // Getty Images

#86. Michael Wirth (Chevron Corp.)

– 2021 salary: $22.6 million
– Median worker pay: $183,531 (123:1 ratio)

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Sievert speaking outdoors wearing a T Mobile t-shirt.

Michael Gonzalez // Getty Images

#85. G. Sievert (T-Mobile US Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $22.6 million
– Median worker pay: $72,572 (312:1 ratio)

A Lumen sign on the outside of a stadium.

Ian Dewar Photography // Shutterstock

#84. Jeffrey Storey (Lumen Technologies Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $22.7 million
– Median worker pay: $75,984 (298:1 ratio)

The exterior of a brick GE building.

Jonathan Weiss // Shutterstock

#83. H. Culp Jr. (General Electric Co.)

– 2021 salary: $22.7 million
– Median worker pay: $55,064 (412:1 ratio)

A Valero gas station.

Tada Images // Shutterstock

#82. Joseph Gorder (Valero Energy Corp.)

– 2021 salary: $22.7 million
– Median worker pay: $198,219 (114:1 ratio)

James Farley Jr. in a gray suit.

Spencer Platt // Getty Images

#81. James Farley Jr. (Ford Motor Co.)

– 2021 salary: $22.8 million
– Median worker pay: $64,003 (356:1 ratio)

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Terrence Duffy in a pinstripe suit.

Tom Williams/CQ-Roll Call, Inc // Getty Images

#80. Terrence Duffy (CME Group Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $22.9 million
– Median worker pay: $153,565 (150:1 ratio)

Robert Thomson speaking onstage in a black suit.

Paul Morigi/Getty Images for The Wall Street Journal // Getty Images

#79. Robert Thomson (News Corp.)

– 2021 salary: $23.0 million
– Median worker pay: $68,984 (334:1 ratio)

Julie Sweet sitting in a chair onstage in a blue dress.

Cindy Ord/Getty Images for Yahoo // Getty Images

#78. Julie Sweet (Accenture Plc)

– 2021 salary: $23.1 million
– Median worker pay: $48,770 (473:1 ratio)

Evan Greenberg speaking at a U.S. China Relations gala.

Wang Ying/Xinhua // Getty Images

#77. Evan Greenberg (Chubb Limited)

– 2021 salary: $23.2 million
– Median worker pay: $71,894 (322:1 ratio)

A Sysco truck outside of a grocery store.

Tada Images // Shutterstock

#76. Kevin Hourican (Sysco Corp.)

– 2021 salary: $23.2 million
– Median worker pay: $75,209 (309:1 ratio)

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Charles Meyers leaning on a desk in an office by a window.

Nhat V. Meyer/Bay Digital First Media/The Mercury News // Getty Images

#75. Charles Meyers (Equinix Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $23.2 million
– Median worker pay: $122,075 (190:1 ratio)

Christopher Nassetta in a suit.

Drew Angerer // Getty Images

#74. Christopher Nassetta (Hilton Worldwide Holdings Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $23.3 million
– Median worker pay: $36,915 (631:1 ratio)

Gregory Hayes talking on stage.

Riccardo Savi // Getty Images for Concordia Summit // Getty Images

#73. Gregory Hayes (Raytheon Technologies Corp.)

– 2021 salary: $23.3 million
– Median worker pay: $112,078 (208:1 ratio)

Global Payments headquarters.

JHVEPhoto // Shutterstock

#72. Jeffrey Sloan (Global Payments Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $23.3 million
– Median worker pay: $56,202 (415:1 ratio)

First Republic Bank exterior.

Sundry Photography // Shutterstock

#71. Hafize Erkan (First Republic Bank)

– 2021 salary: $23.5 million
– Median worker pay: $162,300 (145:1 ratio)

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A flavorist at Archer Daniels Midland creates a black truffle flavor.

Katherine Frey/The Washington Post // Getty Images

#70. Juan Luciano (Archer-Daniels-Midland Co.)

– 2021 salary: $23.5 million
– Median worker pay: $81,320 (290:1 ratio)

A close up of Phebe Novakovic.

BRENDAN SMIALOWSKI/AFP // Getty Images

#69. Phebe Novakovic (General Dynamics Corp.)

– 2021 salary: $23.6 million
– Median worker pay: $92,585 (254:1 ratio)

Darren Woods in a suit.

Mark Schiefelbein/Pool // Getty Images

#68. Darren Woods (Exxon Mobil Corp.)

– 2021 salary: $23.6 million
– Median worker pay: $189,082 (125:1 ratio)

People listen to a presentation on the Halliburton company.

Brandon Bell // Getty Images

#67. Jeffrey Miller (Halliburton Co.)

– 2021 salary: $23.6 million
– Median worker pay: $81,076 (291:1 ratio)

Brian Moynihan in a navy suit.

John Lamparski // Getty Images

#66. Brian Moynihan (Bank of America Corp.)

– 2021 salary: $23.7 million
– Median worker pay: $102,497 (232:1 ratio)

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Jen-Hsun Huang speaks onstage.

SAM YEH/AFP // Getty Images

#65. Jen-Hsun Huang (NVIDIA Corp.)

– 2022 salary: $23.7 million
– Median worker pay: $217,542 (109:1 ratio)

Conoco Phillips headquarters.

JHVEPhoto // Shutterstock

#64. Ryan Lance (ConocoPhillips)

– 2021 salary: $23.9 million
– Median worker pay: $179,428 (133:1 ratio)

David Taylor and Mindy Kaling pose at an event.

Duane Prokop/Getty Images for Procter & Gamble // Getty Images

#63. David Taylor (The Procter & Gamble Co.)

– 2021 salary: $23.9 million
– Median worker pay: $69,671 (343:1 ratio)

Vials of clear liquid on an assembly line.

Dmitry Kalinovsky // Shutterstock

#62. Richard Gonzalez (AbbVie Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $23.9 million
– Median worker pay: $149,662 (160:1 ratio)

Construction equipment.

Cineberg // Shutterstock

#61. Donald Umpleby III (Caterpillar Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $24.3 million
– Median worker pay: $51,102 (475:1 ratio)

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Albert Bourla arrives to ring the closing bell at the New York Stock Exchange.

Drew Angerer // Getty Images

#60. Albert Bourla (Pfizer Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $24.4 million
– Median worker pay: $92,986 (262:1 ratio)

Jeffrey Martin posing in an office.

Bfriedl // Wikimedia Commons

#59. Jeffrey Martin (Sempra Energy)

– 2021 salary: $24.7 million
– Median worker pay: $137,800 (179:1 ratio)

John Stankey onstage speaking.

John Lamparski/Getty Images for Advertising Week New York // Getty Images

#58. John Stankey (AT&T Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $24.8 million
– Median worker pay: $107,570 (231:1 ratio)

Wall Street sign and American flags.

Spencer Platt // Getty Images

#57. James Fitterling (Dow Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $24.9 million
– Median worker pay: $95,607 (260:1 ratio)

James Quincey in front of a Coca-Cola background.

FABRICE COFFRINI/AFP // Getty Images

#56. James Quincey (The Coca-Cola Co.)

– 2021 salary: $24.9 million
– Median worker pay: $13,894 (1,791:1 ratio)

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Hamid Moghadam in a grey suit at a banquet dinner.

Kimberly White/Getty Images for PARS EQUALITY CENTER // Getty Images

#55. Hamid Moghadam (Prologis Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $24.9 million
– Median worker pay: $114,183 (218:1 ratio)

Robert Ford speaking onstage.

PATRICK T. FALLON/AFP // Getty Images

#54. Robert Ford (Abbott Laboratories)

– 2021 salary: $24.9 million
– Median worker pay: $97,952 (254:1 ratio)

Sasan Goodarzi in a gray sweater.

Intuit Corp. // Wikimedia Commons

#53. Sasan Goodarzi (Intuit Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $24.9 million
– Median worker pay: $176,342 (141:1 ratio)

Fidelity headquarters.

JHVEPhoto // Shutterstock

#52. Gary Norcross (Fidelity National Information Services Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $25.0 million
– Median worker pay: $64,135 (390:1 ratio)

Sanjay Mehrotra speaking onstage in a blue suit.

MANDEL NGAN/AFP // Getty Images

#51. Sanjay Mehrotra (Micron Technology Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $25.3 million
– Median worker pay: $64,827 (391:1 ratio)

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An energy tower.

R.Danyliuk // Shutterstock

#50. James Robo (NextEra Energy Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $25.3 million
– Median worker pay: $132,798 (191:1 ratio)

Close up of Sharmistha Dubey.

Match Group // Wikimedia Commons

#49. Sharmistha Dubey (Match Group Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $25.4 million
– Median worker pay: $106,881 (238:1 ratio)

A Cisco sign outside.

Ken Wolter // Shutterstock

#48. Charles Robbins (Cisco Systems Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $25.4 million
– Median worker pay: $124,806 (204:1 ratio)

Close up of Ramon Laguarta smiling.

FABRICE COFFRINI/AFP // Getty Images

#47. Ramon Laguarta (PepsiCo Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $25.5 million
– Median worker pay: $52,297 (488:1 ratio)

American Express headquarters.

JHVEPhoto // Shutterstock

#46. Stephen Squeri (American Express Co.)

– 2021 salary: $25.5 million
– Median worker pay: $67,460 (378:1 ratio)

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C. McMillon in front of a Walmart background onstage.

Rick T. Wilking // Getty Images

#45. C. McMillon (Walmart Inc.)

– 2022 salary: $25.7 million
– Median worker pay: $25,335 (1,013:1 ratio)

Darius Adamczyk speaking in a black suit onstage.

BRENDAN SMIALOWSKI // Getty Images

#44. Darius Adamczyk (Honeywell International Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $26.1 million
– Median worker pay: $75,529 (346:1 ratio)

Alex Gorsky with a microphone in front of him.

JIM WATSON/AFP // Getty Images

#43. Alex Gorsky (Johnson & Johnson)

– 2022 salary: $26.7 million
– Median worker pay: $90,000 (297:1 ratio)

A Pizza Hut sign.

Joe Raedle // Getty Images

#42. David Gibbs (Yum! Brands Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $27.6 million
– Median worker pay: $13,082 (2,108:1 ratio)

Carol Tome speaking into a microphone.

JIM WATSON/AFP // Getty Images

#41. Carol Tome (United Parcel Service Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $27.6 million
– Median worker pay: $50,379 (548:1 ratio)

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Lachlan Murdoch outside.

Drew Angerer // Getty Images

#40. Lachlan Murdoch (Fox Corp.)

– 2021 salary: $27.7 million
– Median worker pay: $80,732 (343:1 ratio)

Rosalind Brewer speaking onstage in a red dress.

JASON REDMOND/AFP // Getty Images

#39. Rosalind Brewer (Walgreens Boots Alliance Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $28.3 million
– Median worker pay: $26,255 (1,084:1 ratio)

Marc Benioff smiling onstage.

Roy Rochlin // Getty Images

#38. Marc Benioff (Salesforce Inc.)

– 2022 salary: $28.6 million
– Median worker pay: $181,612 (157:1 ratio)

Two scientists working with a microscope.

Syda Productions // Shutterstock

#37. Ari Bousbib (IQVIA Holdings Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $28.6 million
– Median worker pay: $139,803 (205:1 ratio)

DXC logo on a phone in front of a computer.

Rafael Henrique/SOPA Images/LightRocket // Getty Images

#36. Michael Salvino (DXC Technology Co.)

– 2022 salary: $28.7 million
– Median worker pay: $44,156 (650:1 ratio)

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Mary Barra smiling.

Drew Angerer // Getty Images

#35. Mary Barra (General Motors Co.)

– 2021 salary: $29.1 million
– Median worker pay: $69,433 (420:1 ratio)

A circuit board with a chip.

Victor Moussa // Shutterstock

#34. Lisa Su (Advanced Micro Devices Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $29.5 million
– Median worker pay: $128,263 (230:1 ratio)

Parag Agrawal in a black hoodie walking outside.

Kevin Dietsch // Getty Images

#33. Parag Agrawal (Twitter Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $30.4 million
– Median worker pay: $232,626 (130:1 ratio)

A wooden frame for a new home.

Canva

#32. David Auld (D.R. Horton Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $30.6 million
– Median worker pay: $107,880 (284:1 ratio)

Vincent Roche clapping his hands at a ribbon cutting ceremony.

Brian Lawless/PA Images // Getty Images

#31. Vincent Roche (Analog Devices Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $30.8 million
– Median worker pay: $46,141 (668:1 ratio)

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Alfred Kelly Jr. in a blue suit and green tie.

Michael Kovac // Getty Images

#30. Alfred Kelly Jr. (Visa Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $30.9 million
– Median worker pay: $146,420 (211:1 ratio)

Robert G. Goldstein in a blue suit speaking behind a podium.

Jun Sato/WireImage // Getty Images

#29. Robert G. Goldstein (Las Vegas Sands Corp.)

– 2021 salary: $31.2 million
– Median worker pay: $35,879 (866:1 ratio)

Stephen Angel speaking into a microphone.

picture alliance // Getty Images

#28. Stephen Angel (Linde Plc)

– 2021 salary: $31.4 million
– Median worker pay: $40,659 (773:1 ratio)

A TJ Maxx store entrance.

Chip Somodevilla // Getty Images

#27. Ernie Herrman (The TJX Companies Inc.)

– 2022 salary: $31.8 million
– Median worker pay: $14,139 (2,249:1 ratio)

Daniel Schulman speaking at a Wall Street Journal event.

Michael Loccisano // Getty Images

#26. Daniel Schulman (PayPal Holdings Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $32.1 million
– Median worker pay: $83,905 (382:1 ratio)

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Robert Chapek standing with the cowboy character from Toy Story.

Gerardo Mora // Getty Images

#25. Robert Chapek (The Walt Disney Co.)

– 2021 salary: $32.5 million
– Median worker pay: $50,430 (644:1 ratio)

Laurence Fink onstage at the World Economic Forum.

FABRICE COFFRINI/AFP // Getty Images

#24. Laurence Fink (BlackRock Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $32.6 million
– Median worker pay: $164,492 (198:1 ratio)

John Donahoe II in a black t-shirt and jeans.

Kevin Dietsch // Getty Images

#23. John Donahoe II (NIKE Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $32.9 million
– Median worker pay: $36,077 (913:1 ratio)

A Comcast sign.

Joshua Rainey Photography // Shutterstock

#22. Brian Roberts (Comcast Corp.)

– 2021 salary: $34.0 million
– Median worker pay: $83,840 (405:1 ratio)

Lennar headquarters.

Coolcaesar at English Wikipedia // Wikimedia Commons

#21. Richard Beckwitt and Jonathan Jaffe (Lennar Corp.)

– 2021 salary: $34.0 million
– Median worker pay: $101,561 (335:1 ratio)

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James Gorman in a suit onstage.

Owen Hoffmann // Getty Images

#20. James Gorman (Morgan Stanley)

– 2021 salary: $34.9 million
– Median worker pay: $137,069 (255:1 ratio)

Gary Dickerson with a guest and Applied Materials employees pose for a photo.

JOSH EDELSON/POOL/AFP // Getty Images

#19. Gary Dickerson (Applied Materials Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $35.3 million
– Median worker pay: $109,304 (323:1 ratio)

Shantanu Narayen in a black suit and bowtie.

John Lamparski // Getty Images

#18. Shantanu Narayen (Adobe Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $36.1 million
– Median worker pay: $165,733 (218:1 ratio)

CenterPoint Energy power plant.

Brandon Bell // Getty Images

#17. David Lesar (CenterPoint Energy Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $37.8 million
– Median worker pay: $103,170 (366:1 ratio)

David Solomon in a suit with a microphone attached to his shirt.

Paul Morigi // Getty Images for Fortune // Getty Images

#16. David Solomon (The Goldman Sachs Group Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $39.5 million
– Median worker pay: $165,828 (238:1 ratio)

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Josh Silverman in a suit smiling.

Roy Rochlin // Getty Images

#15. Josh Silverman (Etsy Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $40.6 million
– Median worker pay: $231,338 (175:1 ratio)

Reed Hastings in front of a Netflix background.

Ore Huiying // Getty Images for Netflix // Getty Images

#14. Reed Hastings (Netflix Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $40.8 million
– Median worker pay: $201,743 (202:1 ratio)

Thomas Rutledge.

Alex Wong // Getty Images

#13. Thomas Rutledge (Charter Communications Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $41.9 million
– Median worker pay: $60,007 (698:1 ratio)

Satya Nadella onstage at a Microsoft event.

Stephen Brashear // Getty Images

#12. Satya Nadella (Microsoft Corp.)

– 2021 salary: $49.9 million
– Median worker pay: $176,858 (282:1 ratio)

Glenn Fogel walking outside.

Kevin Dietsch // Getty Images

#11. Glenn Fogel (Booking Holdings Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $54.0 million
– Median worker pay: $58,005 (931:1 ratio)

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The Terminus complex building, home of Fleetcor.

Keizers // Wikimedia Commons

#10. Ronald Clarke (FLEETCOR Technologies Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $57.9 million
– Median worker pay: $41,265 (1,404:1 ratio)

Hock Tan speaking onstage.

Ying Tang/NurPhoto // Getty Images

#9. Hock Tan (Broadcom Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $60.7 million
– Median worker pay: $247,541 (245:1 ratio)

Jay Snowden speaking at a podium.

John Wilcox/MediaNews Group/Boston Herald // Getty Images

#8. Jay Snowden (Penn National Gaming Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $65.9 million
– Median worker pay: $33,930 (1,942:1 ratio)

Fabrizio Freda in a suit at an outdoor event.

Patrick McMullan // Getty Images

#7. Fabrizio Freda (The Estee Lauder Companies Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $66.0 million
– Median worker pay: $33,586 (1,965:1 ratio)

James Dimon in a suit in a CNBC studio.

World Economic Forum // Wikimedia Commons

#6. James Dimon (JPMorgan Chase & Co.)

– 2021 salary: $84.4 million
– Median worker pay: $92,112 (917:1 ratio)

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Timothy Cook at a White House event.

Nathan Howard // Getty Images

#5. Timothy Cook (Apple Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $98.7 million
– Median worker pay: $68,254 (1,447:1 ratio)

ServiceNow headquarters.

Sundry Photography // Shutterstock

#4. William McDermott (ServiceNow Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $165.8 million
– Median worker pay: $233,859 (709:1 ratio)

Patrick Gelsinger smiling.

Peter Gercke/picture alliance // Getty Images

#3. Patrick Gelsinger (Intel Corp.)

– 2021 salary: $178.6 million
– Median worker pay: $104,400 (1,711:1 ratio)

Andrew Jassy onstage in a blue blazer and jeans.

Michael M. Santiago // Getty Images

#2. Andrew Jassy (Amazon.com Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $212.7 million
– Median worker pay: $32,855 (6,474:1 ratio)

Expedia Group headquarters.

Imtiaz82 // Wikimedia Commons

#1. Peter Kern (Expedia Group Inc.)

– 2021 salary: $296.2 million
– Median worker pay: $102,270 (2,897:1 ratio)

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These 5 charts show the ups and downs of the US stock market over 10 years

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Olive Invest examined historical equities data from S&P Dow Jones, NASDAQ, and others to demonstrate the state of the stock market over the last decade.
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The U.S. stock market is a complicated beast, and with recent events like the COVID-19 pandemic, we’ve seen some volatility in the last few years. Stocks dipped quite a bit during the pandemic but have recovered since.

To get an idea of how the stock market has fared in the last 10 years, watch trends of major market indices—or certain groups of companies’ stocks that give a sample of how the entire market is performing. Perhaps the most well-known market index is the S&P 500, a group of the 500 largest companies on the U.S. stock market.

While the S&P 500 is widely regarded as the best indicator of how the stock market is faring, other market indices can give you a different view based on the type of companies they track. Dow Jones, for instance, follows 30 of the largest companies in the country from various industries. The NASDAQ includes all stocks on the NASDAQ market, largely comprised of tech companies.

By watching the performance of these and other market indices, investors can get a good idea of how the U.S. stock market as a whole has performed over time. Olive Invest examined historical equities data from S&P Dow Jones, NASDAQ, and other data sources to see how the stock market has fared over the last decade.

Chart showing that stock values more than doubled since 2012.

Olive Invest

How stocks have performed over the last decade

This chart shows a significant increase in stock index values from the last decade, despite a brief drop in 2020 during the pandemic. At the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a steep drop-off in index values. However, they bounced back by the end of 2020 into 2021.

Index values have held relatively steady growth across the last 10 years. The NASDAQ, S&P 500, and Dow Jones Industrial Average have all doubled in value since 2012.

A chart showing the Chicago Board Options Exchange volatility index since 2012.

Olive Invest

Tracking volatility

This chart measures the Chicago Board Options Exchange volatility index (VIX index), designed to show how current events and uncertainty affect stock prices. Essentially, the more fluctuation you see here, the more uncertainty investors and the public have about the future, which can significantly impact the market and even help project market crises.

Unsurprisingly, the most significant spike in volatility from the last decade was in March 2020, at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. The last two years have shown a reduction in volatility since this spike, but in general, there is more uncertainty than 10 years prior.

A chart showing the S&P 500 annual return on investment since 2000.

Olive Invest

Rates of return since 2000

The S&P 500’s annual return on investment is a critical indicator of the stock market’s performance. The average return since the S&P 500’s establishment is 11%.

There are a few notable data points here—perhaps the most prominent of which is the Great Recession in 2008. That financial crisis resulted in the most significant drop in the S&P 500 return of the last 20 years. Since the recession, however, the rate of return has been above average almost every year.

Bar chart showing S&P 500 weighting by sector for 2022.

Olive Invest

S&P stocks by sector

The S&P 500 tracks the top 500 U.S. companies on the stock market. Knowing what types of businesses make up the majority of the index is essential to understanding which sectors have the most success.

In 2022, Information Technology made up 26.4% of the S&P 500—an industry high in the last 20 years. Similarly, health care is gaining ground in the previous few years, though it is still short of its historical high.

The financial sector has seen a downturn in the last decade—though this may change with the reclassification of major shares next year.

Chart showing a significant drop in how many publicly traded domestic companies are on the U.S. stock market since 2000.

Olive Invest

Number of publicly traded companies declines

In the last 20 years, there has been a significant drop in how many publicly traded domestic companies are on the U.S. stock market as more companies exit the market and there are fewer IPOs.

The last decade, however, has been far more stable. Experts suggest the change is connected to natural fluctuations and changing dynamics in the market’s major industries. McKinsey attributes a significant portion of the drop-off to acquisitions.

Still, there have been fewer IPOs in the last several years, which can be a disappointment for new investors trying to get in on the ground floor.

This story originally appeared on Olive Invest and was produced and
distributed in partnership with Stacker Studio.

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2023 brings more demand for cloud, web dev, and IT skills for a slew of lucrative tech jobs

Recruitment company Randstad published 2023 lists for Canada’s most in-demand tech jobs and skills.

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Today’s businesses continue embracing digital transformation through automation, cloud systems, and remote work arrangements into 2023. 

Still, skill shortages and employee attrition plague the Canadian workforce. One constant that remains is the demand for highly skilled IT and tech professionals — which just increased by 25% in 2022. 

Recruitment company Randstad recently released roundups of Canada’s most in-demand tech skills and IT and tech jobs for 2023. The good news is prospective workers have ample fields, industries, and salary ranges to consider as they peruse the job market. 

And we’re not just talking about the IT industry. Randstad reminds us that tech professionals are sought after in pretty much every industry, especially banking, administration consulting, employment agencies, and software publishers.

Randstad cites data, security, business system, and quality assurance analysts in their list. These roles require not only technical skills like Microsoft Azure and experience with cloud technology, but also project management skills earned through previous tenures or certifications like the project management professional (PMP) or certified scrummaster (CSM). 

Other in-demand jobs listed include cloud architect and network engineer, positions calling for significant expertise in Java, Python, and cloud technology, on top of other technical and soft skills. 

We also see an increase in average salaries for 2023, jumping from $51,900 to $154,300 in 2022 to $74,000 to $130,600 in 2023. But tech professionals seeking the highest salaries should gravitate toward developer/programmer roles, a position that also made Randstad’s more general best jobs in 2023 list. Notably, the full-stack developer role topped Randstad’s highest-paid jobs list, fetching as high as $130,000.

Randstad also shares a long list of highly sought-after technical skills, from C# and Java to Linux and API. 

While years of professional experience would certainly help today’s prospective candidate, it’s not always a deal breaker. McKinsey reminds us of a curious phenomenon in the tech industry — 44% of tech professionals transitioned from a non-IT role. That’s because companies indeed want qualified candidates with skills, but also seek enthusiastic, hardworking professionals interested in learning and growing with the field’s constant innovations.

Another notable finding was Ranstad’s certification recommendations. These aren’t suitable for beginner tech professionals; rather, they’re a way for an entry-level, associate, or executive professional to easily highlight their prowess on their resumes, like the certified information security manager (CISM) certification. 

Peter Bendor-Samuel, CEO of research firm Everest Group, described the tech demand to Forbes as a result of consistent investment in software-driven operating platforms despite reduced discretionary spending. 

Meaning? 

Companies are cutting out the fluff —  but people who can create and improve technology, security, and cloud computing solutions and systems are certainly not fluff. 

Learn more about Randstad’s 2023 best IT and tech jobs and top skills wanted

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Americans spend $179 on fuel each month—here’s how to spend less

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CoPilot looked into the Consumer Expenditure Surveys to see how much Americans spend on vehicle fuel and suggested ways to lower that expenditure.
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Owning a vehicle comes with a whole host of costs—from insurance and maintenance to parking and tolls. And if the past year has proven anything, it’s that another cost associated with vehicle use—namely fuel—can fluctuate wildly, putting further strain on your bank account for an already costly necessity.

CoPilot looked into the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Consumer Expenditure Surveys to see how much Americans spend on fuel for their vehicles and used sources from insurance companies, transportation fleet managers, and government agencies to determine some ways to lower that expenditure.

On average, Americans spent $179 per month (or $2,148 annually) on gasoline, other fuels, and motor oils in 2021, accounting for around 3% of overall annual expenses. In terms of finding decisive ways to cut that cost, one front-of-mind idea might be to consider an electric vehicle. EVs are gaining in popularity, the major automakers are investing heavily in an electric future, and the government incentivizes most EV buyers.

While switching to a car with better fuel economy, such as a hybrid or fully electric vehicle, can lead to big reductions in monthly fuel expenses, hybrids and EVs often cost more than their gasoline-only counterparts, and the fuel savings may not offset that difference for a number of years. What’s more, the infrastructure EVs depend on for charging remains in something of a developmental stage, making them a limited alternative to gas-powered vehicles—at least for now.

There are approximately 250 million cars and trucks on U.S. roadways; less than 1% are electric. So for those either not in the market for a new vehicle or simply content to stick with the reliability of gasoline-powered travel, the following list offers a wide range of suggestions, best practices, and easy lifestyle adjustments that can reduce the monthly costs associated with fueling a personal vehicle.

Line chart showing the average monthly spend on gasoline from 2011 to 2021 by income quintile. The higher the income, the higher the average spend.

CoPilot

Wealthy households spend more than twice as much on gasoline

Even as gas prices were at their highest since 2014 (adjusted for inflation), spending on fuel in 2021 increased from 2019 levels by only $54 per year on average. And while the drastic reduction in driving brought on during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 had a great impact on fuel spending that year, it does not seem to have extended to significantly changed habits in the following year—driving in 2021 dropped by only 1% when compared with 2019 levels.

Though average spending on fuel in 2021 was high, the lack of an even more dramatic increase due to high gas prices can be attributed mainly to the steady rise in the fuel efficiency of vehicles over the past decade.

Another important consideration raised by this is whether or not the burden of those fuel expenses is felt equally across income levels. Bureau of Labor Statistics data suggests it does not. For those in the lowest income quintile, spending on fuel represented 3.6% of total expenses. The burden decreased for each subsequent income bracket; in the highest quintile, it represented just 2.4% of total costs.

While this disparity might seem minimal when considering the upper limit of the lower quintile’s household earnings is just over $27,000, and the lower limit (or floor) of the highest quintile is $141,000, that 1.2% difference comes starkly into focus.

So while the increase in the fuel economy of newer cars seems to have a relative equalizing force on fuel expenses when taken on average, income disparity implies that those in lower income quintiles do not reap the benefits of those improvements in automotive engineering.

A street car, or a bus-like vehicle for public transit, in downtown Toronto.

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Consider alternative forms of transportation

From their walkability to the accessibility and affordability of public transit, urban areas such as cities offer residents, especially those living in city centers, alternatives to using personal vehicles to get around. This isn’t just beneficial to their health and that of the environment; it also helps people reduce fuel costs.

Overall, those who live in urban areas spent $3,303 less on transportation than those in rural areas in 2021. Fuel expenses accounted for roughly 13% of transportation costs, meaning even those who owned cars in urban areas spent on average $39 less per month on fuel than those in rural settings.

This is not to say, however, that rural or micropolitan areas cannot take advantage of alternative forms of transportation. Small towns across the U.S. have begun to see the value in investing in bike-share programs, using its infrastructure funding to add bike-protected lanes on their streets. This is especially true in smaller college towns, where foot and bike traffic tends to be high.

So whether it’s via bike, scooter, or sneakers, tackling short-distance trips by means other than your vehicle can translate to more cash in your pocket.

A person with their hands on the wheel of a car.

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Keep a close eye on how you’re using your vehicle’s features

The data is clear: Sensible driving makes a meaningful impact on the efficiency of your car.

Frequent braking and acceleration, fast driving, and A/C overuse are a few habits that can increase the overall cost of travel in your vehicle. Using A/C during hot weather can reduce fuel economy by more than 25%, according to the Department of Energy. Parking your car in shade, rolling down your windows at low speeds, and preemptively letting hot air out of the cabin as you begin your journey are a few ways to decrease the impact of heat and make your car more comfortable A/C-free.

The power of a car’s acceleration is something many, if not most, drivers love, and many car buyers put a particular value on speed capability when making their decision. For most vehicles, however, speeding also comes at a cost. For every 5 mph above 50, the cost per gallon of gas increases, depending on your vehicle’s make, model, and year.

Suppose you are driving a 2020 Ford F-150 4WD (incidentally, the bestselling truck in the U.S. since the late 1970s); the difference between going 65 mph and 80 mph is approximately $1 per gallon of gas—meaning what it costs you per 100 miles to hit the highway at 80 is equivalent to the price of an additional gallon of gas or more. Considering the average person drives 13,476 miles per year, keeping to the lower speed (on average) translates into more than $440 in fuel savings.

Coupled with the 15%-30% decrease in fuel economy brought on by frequent braking and acceleration, maintaining steady speeds, accelerating and braking gently, using cruise control, and leaving ample space between your car and the one in front of you can cut your fuel costs while also keeping you safer on the road.

A car's motor receiving an oil change.

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Properly maintain your vehicle

In addition to benefiting its life span, properly maintaining and organizing your vehicle can lead to a small but mighty decrease in monthly fuel expenses.

Keeping your tires inflated to recommended levels, reducing excess weight, and using the recommended grade of motor oil all benefit fuel economy, according to the DOE.

Moreover, and as per basic physics, your car’s fuel use is greatly impacted by aerodynamics; so, while it might seem handy to keep that cargo pod on your roof, or that bicycle rack on your bumper, it can decrease your car’s efficiency by as much as 8% when you’re just tooling around town and as much as 25% on the interstate.

A mobile phone preparing to download the app GasBuddy.

T. Schneider // Shutterstock

Purchase fuel with purpose

An ongoing myth is that premium fuels will make your car more efficient. While they won’t hurt your vehicle’s performance, premium fuel makes no difference for most cars.

There are ways to get more out of your gas purchases through grocery store, gas station, and credit card reward and money-back programs. If you know your habits well enough, you’ll be able to make such programs worthwhile. As per capita gas consumption has hovered in the 350-450 gallon range over the past 20 years, using such programs can translate to big savings.

One of the more effective ways to minimize the price of gas is by using apps and services that, when combined with a little forward planning, allow you to chart out your gas refuels at stations you know will have favorable prices.

Gas prices can fluctuate wildly within a relatively small area. Apps like GasBuddy are built specifically to help you plan around gas price variance and minimize its impact on long trips or high monthly usage. Most navigation tools like Waze or Google Maps also come with built-in gas price features as well.

Bikes available for transportation in a major city.

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Avoid driving altogether

This might seem a rather extreme recommendation, but even if you don’t live near public transit, there are still ways you can reduce the time you spend driving and, therefore, the amount you spend on driving.

Carpooling even a few times a week can lead to many positives, including a decreased carbon footprint and lower fuel expenses. Moreover, carpooling is often supported by corporate incentive programs, so it’s worth looking into at your place of work.

Other options to reduce your reliance on a personal vehicle include riding a bike or e-bike, walking when possible, reducing the number of cars in your household, and coordinating your errands to minimize individual car usage. These alternatives can make a substantive difference not only for your budget but for your health and well-being as well.

Finally, the easiest way to lower your spending on fuel is to spend no money on fuel whatsoever. If you’re able to consider ditching your car entirely, the widespread availability of ride-share and taxi services and car rental agencies can help fill your personal transportation needs when and if they arise.

This story originally appeared on CoPilot and was produced and
distributed in partnership with Stacker Studio.

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