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Montana TikTok ban unrealistic and misguided: experts



While US politicians voice concerns that China could get TikTok user data, the lack of national data privacy law leaves brokers free to gather and sell information about what people do online
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A total ban of TikTok in the US state of Montana is set up to face an epic battle in the courts, but many experts wonder whether the law is even technically possible.

Montana is the first US state to ban TikTok, with the law set to take effect next year as debate escalates over the impact and security of the popular video app that is owned by Chinese company ByteDance.

“You would have to build a Great Fire Wall of Montana,” said Tarah Wheeler, chief of cyber security firm Red Queen Dynamics and a senior fellow for Global Cyber Policy at the Council on Foreign Relations.

“Maintaining a ban in the state and remaining free of the kind of surveillance you are trying to escape is not possible,” she added.

The prohibition will serve as a legal test for a national ban of the Chinese-owned platform, something that lawmakers in Washington are increasingly calling for.

The app is owned by Chinese firm ByteDance and is accused by a wide swathe of US politicians of being under the tutelage of the Chinese government and a tool of espionage by Beijing, something the company furiously denies.

Despite its immense popularity, TikTok faces an ultimatum by the White House that it split from its Chinese owners or stop operating in America.

According to the law, which was signed on Wednesday by Governor Greg Gianforte, a violation takes place each time “a user accesses TikTok, is offered the ability to access TikTok, or is offered the ability to download TikTok.”

Montana could not enforce the ban “without doing a whole bunch of other things we don’t want the governments of any level in the United States being able to do,” said Cyber Threat Alliance chief Michael Daniel.

Causing further trouble, young TikTok fans are likely to take advantage of free virtual private network (VPN) software that lets people disguise where devices are.

Technically adept teenagers in Montana will suddenly use VPNs to be seen logging from other states, Wheeler said, which also introduces vulnerabilities to spyware or malware, which are known to lurk in some VPNs.

– Teens being teens –

While the ban was passed under the auspices of protecting TikTok users in Montana from China snooping, no clear evidence of that has been shown, according to Jason Kelley, acting activism director at internet rights group Electronic Frontier Foundation.

It is the lack of national data privacy law in the United States that leaves users vulnerable, with brokers free to gather and sell internet user information, Kelley noted.

“If China wants data on users, they could just go buy it,” Kelley told AFP.

The bill behind the ban mentioned TikTok pranks referred to as “challenges,” and one Montana legislator lamented his son taking part in one of those.

“Reading between the lines, I think these legislators are angry that they don’t understand the culture of TikTok and how young people use it,” Kelley said.

“Montana legislators wanted to do anything to push back on the negative impact of teenagers being teenagers and the influence of TikTok to do stupid things.”

And, while the law bans Apple or Google from making TikTok available for download in Montana there are other places online to get apps for Android-powered smartphones.

“There is no chance this law will work, even if it is implemented by TikTok to the extent possible,” Kelley said.

The ban will take effect in 2024, but be voided if TikTok is acquired by a company incorporated in a country not designated by the United States as a foreign adversary, the law read.

This was an invitation by Montana legislators for TikTok and the White House to come up with some sort of arrangement that would see the app divest from ByteDance.

But for now, TikTok and possibly users are fully expected to fight the ban in the US courts and possibly all the way to the Supreme court.

“It’s almost certain that someone will challenge the ban on using Tiktok,” said Lyrissa Lidsky, professor at the University of Florida Levin College of Law.

She noted that the ban will easily be seen to violate fundamental free speech laws in the US where companies are afforded the same rights on speech as individuals.

“The politicians think that this is a successful political strategy whether it’s constitutional or not,” she added.

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Smartphone makers bet on AI to boost sales




Smartphone makers are promoting AI-infused devices at the Mobile World Congress
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Smartphone makers are packing their latest devices with flashy new artificial intelligence tools such as real-time voice translation and advanced photo editing in efforts to reignite consumer demand.

The trend was on display at the telecom industry’s biggest annual show, the four-day Mobile World Congress (MWC) which got underway Monday in Barcelona, where handset makers focused on the unique AI-powered features of their new flagship devices.

“Phones have just got boring, they are not as exciting as they used to be. The changes from one model to the next are not that great,” Ben Wood, chief of researcher at CCS Insight, told AFP.

While cameras, battery life and screens are “a little better” than before, companies need to add more “exciting” capabilities to their products to encourage people to upgrade their phones, Wood added.

“AI is a way to do that,” he said.

South Korean giant Samsung’s stand at the MWC prominently plugged its new premium AI-powered Galaxy S24 range, which allow users to make or receive a call in a language they don’t speak and then receive a live translation of the call both audibly and on the screen.

The feature can handle 13 languages, including French, Japanese and Hindi.

The new handsets — which were launched in January — also includes an AI-powered photo editing tool that allows you to easily move and erase objects and people from photos, and then generates content to fill the empty spaces that match its surroundings.

– ‘Changes everything’ –

Smaller device makers are also betting heavily on AI.

China’s Honor launched its new AI-infused flagship Magic 6 Pro smartphone in Barcelona which features a camera with motion-sensing capabilities that can detect and automatically photograph a fast actions such as sports at the best moment.

The device anticipates users’ needs to help them navigate apps more efficiently. For example it can recognise an address in a text message to automatically direct you to a map app.

“AI changes everything,” Honor CEO George Zhao said, adding it “can make fantastic things happen.”

Smartphone makers are now able to offer these sort of AI-powered features — often directly on the handset without resorting to more time-consuming and costly cloud computing — because the computing power of AI chips has increased significantly, analysts said.

“This potentially could be the start of a new era for smartphones,” said PP Foresight analyst Paolo Pescatore, adding the challenge for device makers will be to inform consumers about the new AI-powered tools.

“Articulating the merits of AI and the new features to users will be no easy feat. Not all users are necessarily aware of AI and they will be sceptical at first,” he told AFP.

– Falling sales –

The focus on AI comes amid sluggish smartphones sales as consumers are taking longer to upgrade their devices due to a lack of significant innovations, high inflation and economic uncertainties.

Global smartphone shipments declined 3.2 percent to 1.17 billion units in 2023, its second consecutive yearly decline, according to the IDC consultancy which predicts a marginal rebound this year.

AI-powered tools could also become a new revenue stream for device makers. Samsung has hinted that it may introduce more powerful AI features in the future for paid subscribers.

“The kind of value it is adding does not feel like it is enough to justify spending money on it. But Samsung have more of an eye on the future when AI goes to a whole different level of experience and becomes even more powerful that people then may be prepared to pay for it,” said Wood.

“Everybody wants to drive a services revenue. They all look at Apple, particularly in the mobile phone business, and they are so jealous of Apple being able to generate so much revenue from a services model,” he added.

Apple charges users of its iPhone for a variety of services such as extra cloud storage which has buoyed its profits.

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‘Fake love’ crypto scammers ensnare US victims




Romance crypto scams have resulted in losses worth billions of dollars
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The “wine trader” wooed her online for months with his flirtatious smile and emoji-sprinkled texts. Then he went for the kill, defrauding the Philadelphia-based tech professional out of $450,000 in a cryptocurrency romance scam.

The con — which drained Shreya Datta, 37, of her savings and retirement funds while saddling her with debt -– involved the use of digitally altered deepfake videos and a script so sophisticated that she felt her “brain was hacked.”

The scam is commonly known as “pig butchering,” with victims likened to hogs fattened up by fraudsters with feigned love and affection before the proverbial slaughter — tricking them into a fake crypto investment.

The rapid growth of this fraud, thought to be run by crime syndicates in Southeast Asia, has resulted in losses worth billions of dollars in the United States, with victims saying there is little recourse to recover the money.

As it has for many victims, Datta’s experience began on a dating app — Hinge, in her case, where last January she met “Ancel,” who introduced himself as a French wine trader based in Philadelphia.

Datta said she was “charisma bombed” as the conversation quickly moved to WhatsApp. The gym buff with a dreamy smile deleted his Hinge profile to give her “focused attention,” a refreshing experience in the age of fleeting online relationships.

They exchanged selfies, flirty emoticons and did brief video calls in which the suave but “shy” man posed with a dog, later determined to be AI deepfakes.

They texted daily, with “Ancel” enquiring about little things like whether she had eaten, preying on Datta’s desire for a caring companion after her divorce.

Plans to physically meet kept getting pushed back, but Datta was not immediately suspicious. On Valentine’s Day last year, she received a bouquet from “Ancel” sent from a Philadelphia flower shop, with the card addressing her as “Honey Cream.”

When she sent him a selfie, posing with the flowers, he sprayed her with red kiss mark emojis, according to WhatsApp exchanges seen by AFP.

– ‘Traumatizing’ –

Between the mushy exchanges, “Ancel” sold her a dream.

“The dream was, ‘I’m retiring early, I’m well off. What is your plan?'” Datta, an immigrant from India, told AFP.

“He’s like, ‘I’ve made all this money investing. Do you really want to work till you’re 65?'”

He sent her a link to download a crypto trading app — which came with two-factor authentication to make it appear legitimate — and showed her what he called money-making trades through annotated screenshots seen by AFP.

Datta converted some of her savings into cryptocurrency on the US-based exchange Coinbase and the fake app initially allowed her to withdraw her early gains, boosting her confidence to invest more.

“As you make astronomical amounts of money trading, it messes with your normal risk perception,” Datta said in hindsight.

“You feel like, ‘Wow, I can do even more.'”

“Ancel” egged her on to invest more savings, take out loans and, despite her reluctance, liquidate her retirement fund.

By March, Datta’s nearly $450,000 investment had more than doubled on paper, but alarm bells went off when she tried to withdraw the amount and the app demanded a personal “tax.”

She turned to her London-based brother, who did a reverse image search of the pictures “Ancel” had sent her and found they were of a German fitness influencer.

“When I realized it was all a scam and all the money was gone, I had proper PTSD symptoms — I couldn’t sleep, couldn’t eat, couldn’t function,” Datta said.

“It was very traumatizing.”

– ‘Brainwashed’ –

Dating sites are rife with disinformation, with Facebook groups such as “Tinder swindler dating scams” and “Are we dating the same guy?” cropping up, and researchers calling out the growing use of AI-generated profile pictures.

But the use of romance as a hook to commit financial fraud is provoking new alarm.

The FBI told AFP that last year more than 40,000 people reported losses totaling well over $3.5 billion from cryptocurrency fraud, including pig butchering, to the agency’s Internet Crime Complaint Center.

But that estimate is likely low, as many victims tend not to report the crime out of shame.

“What’s horrific about this crime is it is meant to take every last penny from its victim,” Erin West, a California-based prosecutor, told AFP, adding that she is “deluged with victims every day.”

Self-harm among victims is a common concern, campaigners say, with most unable to recover their losses and some falling prey to another breed of scammers — fake recovery agents.

Datta, who is in therapy and has moved to a smaller apartment to manage her debt, said she had little hope of recovery after reporting the crime to the FBI and Secret Service.

Neither body responded to AFP’s queries about her particular case. Nor did Coinbase, which informed Datta in an email –- after she was conned — that she “may have sent cryptocurrency to a fraudulent investment platform.”

More agonizing, Datta said, was dealing with public judgments such as, “How could you be so stupid?”

“There should be no shame in becoming a victim of this absolutely masterful psychological scam,” West said.

“Victims are truly brainwashed.”


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Chip giant TSMC shifts away from hotspot Taiwan with Japan plant




A general view shows the new semiconductor plant by Japan Advanced Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (JASM), a subsidiary of Taiwan's chip giant TSMC (Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company), in Kikuyo, Japan
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Taiwanese chip giant TSMC is set to open an $8.6 billion plant in Japan on Saturday as the firm moves some of its crucial hardware manufacturing away from its native base.

Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, which counts Apple and Nvidia as clients, produces half the world’s chips, used in everything from smartphones to satellites and increasingly to power AI technology.

But TSMC’s customers, as well as governments concerned about supplies of chips vital to the economy and to defence, want the firm to make more chips away from the self-ruled island.

China’s increasing assertiveness towards Taiwan — which it claims as its own territory and has not ruled out taking by force — has sparked worries about the world’s dependence on the island for chips production and pushed TSMC to diversify where it makes them.

The new plant in Japan is “the most significant TSMC international investment to open in many years”, said Chris Miller, author of “Chip War: The Fight for the World’s Most Critical Technology”.

“It will also solidify the political relationship between Taiwan and Japan at a time when Taiwan is looking to make sure it’s got powerful friends that can help it stand up to Chinese pressure,” Miller told AFP.

But TSMC’s new facility on the southern island of Kyushu is also a coup for Japan as it vies with the United States and Europe to woo semiconductor firms with huge subsidies.

– State sweeteners –

Prime Minister Fumio Kishida will reportedly be among those attending Saturday afternoon’s opening ceremony with senior TSMC executives.

Firms like Toshiba and NEC helped Japan dominate in microchips in the 1980s but competition from South Korea and Taiwan saw its global market share slump from more than 50 percent to around 10 percent.

Now Japan is making available up to four trillion yen ($26.7 billion) in state sweeteners to help triple the sales of domestically produced chips to more than 15 trillion yen by 2030.

The new TSMC plant in the town of Kikuyo, for which the government pledged over 40 percent of the costs — Sony and Denso are also on board — is just the first.

With “strong” Japanese government support, TSMC this month announced a second facility, to make more advanced chips, and is reportedly eyeing a third and even a fourth.

Others getting state funds include Kioxia, Micron and Rapidus, an ambitious joint venture involving IBM and Japanese firms for state-of-the-art two-nanometre logic chips.

– Welcome banners –

TSMC is building a second factory in the US state of Arizona and plans another in Germany, its first in Europe.

But Japan has the advantage of being geographically closer, has a wealth of experience in the sector and, for the Kikuyo plant at least which took 22 months to build, is fast.

By contrast in the United States, which itself has announced subsidies of $52.7 billion to boost its own sector, the Arizona plant has been delayed and has seen disputes with unions.

“I have seen many factories being built by various companies, but TSMC was built with remarkable speed,” Taro Imamura, a local official in Kikuyo, told AFP.

“Everyone in town, from children to the elderly, now knows the words ‘chips’ and ‘TSMC’,” Imamura said at Kikuyo’s town hall, where a banner reads “We welcome TSMC workers”.

The Kumamoto area of Kyushu is already a hub for Japanese semiconductor companies, including makers of machines for chip fabs like Tokyo Electron that are doing brisk business with China.

But as with other sectors in ageing Japan, there are worries about finding enough workers, particularly with local students either leaving or preferring other industries than chips.

Graduates are “more interested in software”, Kenichiro Takakura, associate professor at the National Institute of Technology’s Kumamoto College, told AFP.

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