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Car insurance FAQs: This is what a deductible and 14 other terms mean

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CoPilot analyzed leading insurance industry resources to define 15 terms consumers need to know to navigate the car insurance market.  
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You’ve finally managed to buy a car—but you’re not done yet. Now you need to choose car insurance, something many vehicle owners might find considerably less fun than enjoying their new ride. Insurance policies are contracts full of complex terminology that must meet state regulations, so the technical language can make anyone feel like they need a law degree to translate. But this can be by design: Insurers also make policies complex in order to eliminate ambiguities that lawyers can leverage in court.

If you’ve given up trying to make sense of what’s covered, and to what degree, you’re not alone. About 96% of drivers don’t understand the basics of their car insurance policy, according to a 2022 survey. To address this problem, CoPilot analyzed National Association of Insurance Commissioners and Insurance Information Institute resources to compile 15 terms consumers absolutely need to know to navigate the car insurance market.

Not knowing the lingo insurers use could cost you in the long run—if you make assumptions about the language of your policy, you may be in for a shock if it doesn’t cover certain damages or injuries.

Some states—including Florida, Colorado, Arizona, Texas, and North Carolina—require policies to be readable, using grade level or Flesch scale readability scores to determine how easy they are to understand. But they still contain industry terms that can be difficult to parse.


Two cars after hitting each other when attempting to park in the same spot.

Dmitry Dven // Shutterstock

Deductible

When you get auto insurance, the insurer is taking a risk that you might get in an accident, but you share that risk through your deductible. That’s the amount of money or percentage of costs you pay if you have a claim before the insurance coverage kicks in.

For example, say you drive through a grocery store parking lot, hit a cart, and it breaks your headlight. The repair estimate is $250, and you have a $200 deductible. You would pay $200, and the insurance company would pay $50. If your deductible were more than $250, you’d be responsible for the entire bill. Typically, the higher the deductible on your policy, the less your insurance policy will cost.

A car insurance document next to a set of keys and money to pay the premium.

iJeab // Shutterstock

Premium

A premium is the amount of money you pay for insurance coverage. Insurance companies determine this amount based on factors like your age, where you live, your driving record, and whether you’ve filed a claim in the past. You may have to pay your premium in full before your coverage starts. But depending on the insurer, you may also be able to pay semiannually, quarterly, or monthly.

A person looking at their car, which has been rear-ended by the vehicle behind it.

Southworks // Shutterstock

Liability insurance

If you cause an accident, liability insurance will pay for the medical and property costs the other party incurs. This can be broken out into body injury liability and property damage liability. The amount of coverage you have is the maximum amount of money the insurance company will pay out.

State requirements vary, but coverage is generally in the tens of thousands. For instance, in 2023 a New Jersey law went into effect that increased the required minimum amount of liability coverage for that state’s drivers from $15,000 to $25,000, a move that will add about $125 to drivers’ bills annually until the minimum increases again to $35,000 in 2026.

A trucking lying in a ditch after an accident.

Aisylu Ahmadieva // Shutterstock

Commercial auto insurance

Business owners who have vehicles that are primarily used for company business—including company cars, trucks, vans, and construction vehicles—get this type of insurance to cover their fleets.

Commercial insurance offers protection for bodily injury and property damage liability that affects others. It also pays for medical treatments for people who were injured in the company’s vehicle, as well as personal injury protection for those people. Commercial insurance also often covers damage done in collisions or caused by uninsured motorists. It can also include what’s often called “comprehensive” coverage, which pays for damage done by thieves, vandals, and weather.

This insurance usually has higher liability limits, which gives business owners a little more protection from lawsuits if someone using a company car causes an accident. Rates have been on the rise, up 7% in the fourth quarter of 2022, according to a report from MarketScout. This increase is in part due to inflation, but it’s also because drivers are taking more risks and ending up in bigger accidents.

Two people looking at their personal auto insurance on a laptop.

Rawpixel.com // Shutterstock

Personal auto insurance

If you own a car or truck that’s for personal use, you’ll shop for this type of auto insurance policy. It’s mandatory for car owners who live in Washington D.C. and every state—except New Hampshire and Virginia—which have laws requiring drivers to be able to pay for medical bills and damages if they cause a crash. Having insurance fulfills that responsibility.

If you don’t have insurance—and 1 in 8 drivers does not, according to the Insurance Information Institute—and cause an accident, you’re responsible for paying any costs, and your driver’s license could be suspended.

A family buying a car.

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Terms, lapses, and effective dates

When you purchase an auto insurance policy, you buy it for a certain period of time—the term length—that begins on a particular day, called the effective date.

If you don’t pay your insurance bill on time, your policy will lapse, meaning that the insurance company can cancel your coverage. When you’re buying a new car, you may need to buy insurance before you take the car off of the lot, so check with the dealership. If you’re trading in another car, your insurance company may allow you a few days’ grace period on your old policy in order to get the new policy worked out.

A form for claiming a rebate.

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Rebate

Sometimes events will happen that cause insurers to refund some or all of your insurance premium payments. This happened notably after the initial pandemic lockdowns, when many insurers sent rebates to policyholders because people were driving less and there was not as much traffic on the roads, both of which meant fewer accidents insurers had to cover.

Other reasons arise as well. For instance, in 2022, the state of Michigan issued a $400 rebate for each registered vehicle in the state because there was a surplus in the state’s catastrophic claims fund, which is supported by insurance companies and drivers’ premium payments.

An insurance underwriter reviews a file to determine into which group a new client should be placed.

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Underwriting

When an insurance company gives you a policy, they’re taking a risk that you’ll be a safe driver and won’t cause any accidents. Underwriting is the process they use to determine those risks, decide whether to offer you insurance, and what the rate will be if they do.

In this process, insurers sort applicants into groups of similar risk behavior and determine a rate for the entire group based on the claims that come from that group. Low-risk groups have lower rates than high-risk groups.

A damaged red car in an auto repair station.

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Copay

Copays allow insurers and insured consumers to share incurred costs. They’re typically used when a claim involves medical expenses, and function much like copays in health insurance. Copays can also happen with auto repairs if a repair shop and insurer can’t agree on a price to repair damage on a vehicle. In those cases, the insured person would have to pay the difference between the amount the repair ship is charging and the amount the insurance company is willing to pay.

Paramedics helping a person on a stretcher after a car accident.

Gorodenkoff // Shutterstock

Personal injury protection coverage

If you’re in an accident, personal injury protection, often called PIP, covers medical expenses for you and anyone in your vehicle, whether you—or they—have health insurance. It differs from liability coverage, which is for expenses for the other party in a crash.

PIP coverage is mandatory for drivers in any of the 12 states that have no-fault insurance laws, which require all drivers in a crash to file an insurance claim, regardless of who was at fault. Those states are Florida, Hawaii, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, and Utah. Drivers in Puerto Rico must also have PIP.

A food delivery driver putting a brown bag of food into a cooler in their car.

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Private passenger auto insurance

Private passenger auto insurance is the technical term given to the insurance plan you have for your personal vehicle. This blanket term includes all the different types of coverage you might have, such as liability, PIP, collision, and uninsured/underinsured motorist coverage.

If you use your personal car for work, private passenger insurance may restrict or limit the coverage you have. During the pandemic, Maryland recommended that insurers waive this restriction, as many citizens started using their personal vehicles to work as delivery drivers.

A car crashed into the fenced wall of a cemetery.

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Auto physical damage insurance

While liability insurance covers damage you cause to someone else’s car, auto physical damage insurance covers damage that happens to your own car. This comes in two main types, which are often bundled together but may also be sold separately, to allow consumers better control over their costs.

Collision coverage kicks in when you have, yes, a collision—not just with other cars, but also if you had a run-in with a deer or a fence. Comprehensive coverage is what takes care of the payments if you discover someone has smashed in your window or even stolen your car. This type of insurance also covers weather-related damage, such as flooding, hailstorms, and fire.

An auto insurance claim form with glasses and a pen on it.

emilie zhang // Shutterstock

Claim

A claim is the report you give to your insurance company if you’ve been in a crash and want them to cover the costs of the damage. Insurers will investigate the event and can choose to accept the claim—that is, pay for damages according to the terms of your insurance policy—or deny it and pay nothing. You may be able to appeal a denial, or even a partial denial, to your insurer or even to a state agency that regulates the insurance industry.

If you’re at fault for the crash, making a claim could cause your insurance premiums to go up. Due to the increasing costs of claims, the Insurance Information Institute found that rates rose 8.8% in 2022. If you’re not at fault, filing a claim allows your insurance company to connect with the other drivers’ insurance companies and settle any financial disputes without your involvement.

An auto insurance agent writing down the details of a car's damage after an accident.

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Claims adjustment expenses

When someone makes an insurance claim, the insurance company has to fully investigate it to make sure the claim is legitimate. This can take a lot of legwork, as it includes determining what happened, how much damage was actually done, how much of the claim will be covered, settling it, and even defending the policyholder against legal claims. All of this costs money, so some insurers require policyholders to pay for some of these expenses.

A car that was damaged in an accident.

SKT Studio // Shutterstock

Financial responsibility

States have so-called “financial responsibility” laws that require drivers to be able to pay for crashes for which they are liable. Each state has its own requirements for the minimum amount of liability levels that drivers must have. Most require at least some coverage for bodily injury and property damage liability. Some also require additional types of insurance, such as uninsured motorist, underinsured motorist, and personal injury protection.

New Hampshire is the only state that doesn’t require auto insurance, although banks who lend money to car buyers may require it as a condition of the loan. New Hampshire drivers who are in crashes are required to prove they have enough assets to cover the costs. And if the damage or injury is serious enough, they may have their license suspended.

Virginia has minimum insurance requirements, but the state allows drivers to drive without insurance if they pay the state a special fee, which does not provide any insurance coverage.

This story originally appeared on CoPilot and was produced and
distributed in partnership with Stacker Studio.

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The county receiving the most Small Business Administration loans in each state

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Flippa identified the county in each state where applicants were approved for the most Small Business Administration loan funds per capita in 2023.
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The Small Business Administration backed loans worth $27.5 billion through its primary lending program in 2023—rising well above pre-COVID-19 pandemic levels as government officials aim to stabilize the economy.

Many small businesses get their start and scale up with SBA loans, which increased lending to Black, Latino, and women entrepreneurs in the past few years in step with efforts to become more equitable.

Flippa found the county within each state where applicants were approved for the most SBA loan funds per capita in fiscal year 2023, which ended in September. The analysis was based on the SBA’s most common loan program, known as 7(a) loans. States are listed in alphabetical order.

SBA’s 7(a) program provides extra security to lenders when they loan money to small businesses that might otherwise be considered too risky to grant. Loans can be for up to $5 million, but in 2023, nearly 7 in 10 loans were for amounts of $350,000 or less. Small businesses can use these funds for real estate acquisitions or improvements, working capital, supplies and equipment, and for other business startup or acquisition purposes.

Barriers do still exist for eligibility, including income, credit history, and location, but SBA loans can be fruitful for founders who don’t qualify for conventional business financing. They can also provide protection against high and volatile interest rates, as SBA-backed loans have maximum interest rates that are predictable and often lower than other loans.

All but two of the #1 ranked counties had populations of less than 500,000—most smaller than 100,000. That’s not surprising, as the Census Bureau classifies about 99% of U.S. counties as small. Still, it signifies that these smaller communities are building successful entrepreneurial environments. In most cases, their small businesses are able to succeed beyond those within the major U.S. population centers—at least in terms of success in gaining SBA funding.

Read on to see whether your county was among those receiving the most SBA loans.


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Alabama: Cleburne County

– SBA loan funds approved: $5.6 million (About $375 per resident)
– Number of loans: 5

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Alaska: Sitka Borough

– SBA loan funds approved: $6.1 million (About $716 per resident)
– Number of loans: 4

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Arizona: La Paz County

– SBA loan funds approved: $3.1 million (About $185 per resident)
– Number of loans: 1

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Arkansas: Lawrence County

– SBA loan funds approved: $8.5 million (About $524 per resident)
– Number of loans: 3

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California: Madera County

– SBA loan funds approved: $29.0 million (About $186 per resident)
– Number of loans: 16

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Colorado: Summit County

– SBA loan funds approved: $20.6 million (About $662 per resident)
– Number of loans: 23

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Connecticut: Hartford County

– SBA loan funds approved: $95.6 million (About $106 per resident)
– Number of loans: 212

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Delaware: New Castle County

– SBA loan funds approved: $49.8 million (About $88 per resident)
– Number of loans: 121

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Florida: Gilchrist County

– SBA loan funds approved: $5.6 million (About $317 per resident)
– Number of loans: 2

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Georgia: McIntosh County

– SBA loan funds approved: $10.0 million (About $888 per resident)
– Number of loans: 3

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Hawaii: Kauai County

– SBA loan funds approved: $4.1 million (About $56 per resident)
– Number of loans: 8

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Idaho: Shoshone County

– SBA loan funds approved: $4.8 million (About $365 per resident)
– Number of loans: 4

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Illinois: Logan County

– SBA loan funds approved: $8.2 million (About $291 per resident)
– Number of loans: 2

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Indiana: Bartholomew County

– SBA loan funds approved: $16.4 million (About $201 per resident)
– Number of loans: 10

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Iowa: Chickasaw County

– SBA loan funds approved: $2.5 million (About $207 per resident)
– Number of loans: 6

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Kansas: Gove County

– SBA loan funds approved: $2.0 million (About $721 per resident)
– Number of loans: 1

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Kentucky: Owen County

– SBA loan funds approved: $5.1 million (About $456 per resident)
– Number of loans: 2

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Louisiana: Claiborne Parish

– SBA loan funds approved: $6.0 million (About $412 per resident)
– Number of loans: 5

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Maine: Knox County

– SBA loan funds approved: $5.3 million (About $132 per resident)
– Number of loans: 19

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Maryland: Allegany County

– SBA loan funds approved: $6.5 million (About $95 per resident)
– Number of loans: 9

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Massachusetts: Nantucket County

– SBA loan funds approved: $3.3 million (About $240 per resident)
– Number of loans: 8

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Michigan: Keweenaw County

– SBA loan funds approved: $4.3 million (About $2,101 per resident)
– Number of loans: 5

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Minnesota: Marshall County

– SBA loan funds approved: $5.1 million (About $559 per resident)
– Number of loans: 4

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Mississippi: Smith County

– SBA loan funds approved: $7.3 million (About $506 per resident)
– Number of loans: 14

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Missouri: Pettis County

– SBA loan funds approved: $17.4 million (About $406 per resident)
– Number of loans: 9

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Montana: Sweet Grass County

– SBA loan funds approved: $4.8 million (About $1,312 per resident)
– Number of loans: 1

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Nebraska: Nuckolls County

– SBA loan funds approved: $2.2 million (About $521 per resident)
– Number of loans: 1

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Nevada: Carson City

– SBA loan funds approved: $13.3 million (About $229 per resident)
– Number of loans: 15

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New Hampshire: Rockingham County

– SBA loan funds approved: $35.3 million (About $113 per resident)
– Number of loans: 117

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New Jersey: Cape May County

– SBA loan funds approved: $26.7 million (About $280 per resident)
– Number of loans: 27

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New Mexico: Torrance County

– SBA loan funds approved: $4.2 million (About $280 per resident)
– Number of loans: 1

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New York: Essex County

– SBA loan funds approved: $11.5 million (About $306 per resident)
– Number of loans: 8

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North Carolina: Dare County

– SBA loan funds approved: $13.3 million (About $362 per resident)
– Number of loans: 8

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North Dakota: Oliver County

– SBA loan funds approved: $384,000 (About $208 per resident)
– Number of loans: 1

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Ohio: Putnam County

– SBA loan funds approved: $7.4 million (About $214 per resident)
– Number of loans: 10

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Oklahoma: Craig County

– SBA loan funds approved: $4.4 million (About $311 per resident)
– Number of loans: 2

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Oregon: Wasco County

– SBA loan funds approved: $6.1 million (About $229 per resident)
– Number of loans: 7

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Pennsylvania: Jefferson County

– SBA loan funds approved: $6.8 million (About $153 per resident)
– Number of loans: 8

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Rhode Island: Kent County

– SBA loan funds approved: $14.9 million (About $88 per resident)
– Number of loans: 39

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South Carolina: Jasper County

– SBA loan funds approved: $5.5 million (About $192 per resident)
– Number of loans: 5

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South Dakota: Deuel County

– SBA loan funds approved: $1.5 million (About $341 per resident)
– Number of loans: 1

SevenMaps // Shutterstock

Tennessee: Decatur County

– SBA loan funds approved: $3.0 million (About $262 per resident)
– Number of loans: 2

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Texas: Menard County

– SBA loan funds approved: $1.5 million (About $745 per resident)
– Number of loans: 1

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Utah: Piute County

– SBA loan funds approved: $1.4 million (About $746 per resident)
– Number of loans: 1

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Vermont: Windham County

– SBA loan funds approved: $9.2 million (About $201 per resident)
– Number of loans: 15

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Virginia: Richmond County

– SBA loan funds approved: $6.9 million (About $777 per resident)
– Number of loans: 22

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Washington: Columbia County

– SBA loan funds approved: $1.3 million (About $331 per resident)
– Number of loans: 3

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West Virginia: Marshall County

– SBA loan funds approved: $5.3 million (About $172 per resident)
– Number of loans: 3

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Wisconsin: Vilas County

– SBA loan funds approved: $13.6 million (About $597 per resident)
– Number of loans: 8

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Wyoming: Sheridan County

– SBA loan funds approved: $13.9 million (About $451 per resident)
– Number of loans: 7

Story editing by Ashleigh Graf. Copy editing by Paris Close. Photo selection by Michael Flocker.

This story originally appeared on Flippa and was produced and
distributed in partnership with Stacker Studio.

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How has US wealth evolved since the 1980s?

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How do people allocate their wealth? The Wealth Enhancement Group analyzed data published by the Federal Reserve to answer this question.
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America’s economy has exploded since 1989.

Gross domestic product, which measures all of the goods and services produced in a year, grew from $9.9 trillion to $22.5 trillion from 1989 to 2023 (after accounting for inflation), according to the Bureau of Economic Analysis. This figure represents a massive increase in economic output.

This increased productivity has fed into a similarly significant increase in wealth. The Wealth Enhancement Group used data from the Federal Reserve to look at how the assets held by U.S. households has evolved over time.

Data shows that American households owned a combined $161 trillion in assets in the third quarter of 2023, up from $24 trillion in 1989. That makes for a roughly 570% increase, or 170% after adjusting for inflation.

After accounting for debt, such as mortgages, America’s total household net worth grew to $142 trillion, up from $20 trillion. Although the number is down by about 1% from its peak in the second quarter of 2022, it still reflects a dramatic increase over time.

The most valuable asset class the typical American family holds is real estate. Besides a significant drop during the 2000s subprime mortgage crisis and a brief dip following interest rate hikes in 2022, housing has been a reliable generator of wealth for the middle class.


Line chart showing the rise of household assets in the US between 1989 and 2023, which rose from $24 trillion to $161 trillion.

Wealth Enhancement Group

Household assets have skyrocketed since 1989

For Americans in the bottom half of the wealth distribution, housing made up 51% of their assets. Wealthier households, in contrast, tend to have higher shares of their savings in equities.

Households in the top 0.1% held 60% of their assets in shares of public and private companies in 2023. Meanwhile, households in the bottom half of wealth in the United States held only around 6% of assets in equities.

Yet, despite how much housing has grown in value, its ascent pales compared to the fastest-growing asset class: public equities.

Between 1989 and 2023, the value of public stocks held by American households grew by nearly 1,700%, rising from $2 trillion in value to $37 trillion. This trend, coupled with the fact that shares in companies are held disproportionately by the rich, has caused the share of American household assets held by the top 0.1% to increase from 8% to 12%.

A stacked bar chart showing the top 0.1% have most of their wealth in equities where housing makes up for 51% of the assets of people in the bottom half of wealth in the United States.

Wealth Enhancement Group

The wealthy tend to own shares in companies

Some economists argue that, in theory, the ratio of a country’s wealth to its economy, as measured by GDP, should be constant over time.

Yet, data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis and the Federal Reserve data shows that the ratio of the net worth of American households and nonprofit organizations to GDP rose from around 3.6 in the 1980s to 5.5 in the third quarter of 2023.

In 2022, YiLi Chien and Ashley Stewart, two researchers at the St. Louis Federal Reserve, offered a few theories to explain how this ratio has increased over time. They suggest that American companies might now have greater market power, allowing them to charge more. The authors also note that since the internet era, many of America’s biggest companies, such as Meta and Google, offer their services to consumers for free—while investors may value their economic contributions, they do not count for much in the GDP numbers.

However, assets are not net worth. The rich are more likely to own their homes outright. In the third quarter of 2023, households from the top 0.1% owned $1.83 trillion worth of real estate while owing just $70 billion in mortgages. In contrast, households in the bottom 50% of wealth owned $4.87 billion of real estate against $3 billion of housing debt.

Story editing by Ashleigh Graf. Copy editing by Kristen Wegrzyn.

This story originally appeared on Wealth Enhancement Group and was produced and
distributed in partnership with Stacker Studio.

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Deepfakes cause 30% of organizations to doubt biometrics, Gartner finds

A look at AI deepfakes, it’s impact on security, and ways to mitigate the risks

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A fake moustache and trenchcoat isn’t a convincing disguise, right? But a digitally altered video that makes your face identical to someone else’s? 

That’s a different story. 

Deepfakes are artificial images or videos that imitate a person’s likeness so convincingly that it can be nearly impossible to recognize they’re fake. Hackers use them to impersonate people’s faces and voices. This can have monumental impacts — even $25 million worth, which is what one undisclosed company lost in a deepfake scam. 

Even with all the money a company spends on voice authentication and facial biometrics, it can all be in vain if a deepfake hacker manages to fool them. 

Gartner explores the impact of deepfakes on organizational policy, and we’ll share some risk management considerations to address the trend. 

30% of organizations can’t rely on facial recognition software and biometrics

Biometrics rely on presentation attack detection (PAD) to assess a person’s identity and liveness. The problem now is that today’s PAD standards don’t protect against injection attacks from AI deepfakes. Once a bulletproof security strategy, biometrics are now inefficient for 30% of companies surveyed by Gartner. 

“These artificially generated images of real people’s faces, known as deepfakes, can be used by malicious actors to undermine biometric authentication or render it inefficient,” 

— Akif Khan, VP Analyst at Gartner 

The solution is a demand for more innovative cybersecurity tech. Gartner advises organizations to update their minimum requirements from cybersecurity members to include all of the following 

  • PAD
  • Injected attacks detection (IAD)
  • Image inspection

On top of that, you can beef up security with: 

  • Device identification: Numerical values or codes to identify a user’s device
  • Behavioural analytics: Machine learning algorithms to detect any shifts in day-to-day online behaviour

So, how can you account for deepfakes risks and mitigation in practice? Here are a few more tips to consider: 

  • Educate employees: Hold monthly or quarterly meetings with experts in the field to help your employee identify common signs of deepfakes, including blurred or pixelated images in a person’s video, or distorted audio. Greater awareness of what to look out for can allow employees to flag suspicions. 
  • Don’t rely on one authentication process: Multi-factor authentication demands 2+ pieces of evidence to verify a user before admitting them into a network. Include email, phone, or voice verification in addition to biometrics. 
  • Invest in deepfake detection software: Consider a subscription Sensity AI, Deepware Scan, Truepic, or Microsoft Video Authenticator. 

Gartner plans to share more findings and research on deepfakes at their security and risk management summits taking place in various countries around the world. 

Read more about those summits and see the news release here.

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